College of Natural Resources, UC Berkeley

News & Events

September 6, 1999

State trees might be saved by wasp, CNR researcher discovers

By Kathleen Scalise, UC Berkeley Public Affairs

BERKELEY--Relief may be in sight for California eucalyptus trees hard hit by a new insect pest. A tiny wasp just discovered by a scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, may be the cure for the damaged trees.

Under attack from the redgum lerp psyllid, trees lose their leaves and produce a sticky honeydew that dirties cars, buildings and sidewalks. The psyllid has caused much concern in the state since first found in Los Angeles County in June 1998.

'People are afraid they are going to lose their trees,' said Donald Dahlsten, a professor of environmental science, policy and management and biological control in the College of Natural Resources.

The newly discovered wasps might control the psyllids spreading infestation by laying its eggs in the insect and killing it.

This psyllid infestation has now been reported in 30 California counties. In the Bay Area, trees at Stanford University, Ardenwood Park in Fremont and parts of Walnut Creek have suffered particular damage. In Southern California, those hardest hit include the Los Angeles suburbs of North Hollywood and Valley Village and the cities of Torrance, Riverside and Palos Verdes.

The problem psyllid is Glycaspis brimblecombei, a small, flying insect that feeds on plant juices. It has been collected on about 16 different varieties of eucalyptus in California, but is causing the most trouble on redgum, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a common ornamental eucalyptus tree species.

'These are tough trees,' said Dahlsten, 'but the question is how many times they can be defoliated before they die.'

Dahlsten returned from Australia on Sept. 1 with two shipments of the new parasitic wasps. Each the size of a grain of pepper, the wasps are so small it's hard to believe they could save gigantic trees. They skitter around their cages at UC Berkeley's insect quarantine facility like minuscule ants and have not been officially classified. But they may include as many as three species of Psyllaephagus that feed on the California's problem psyllid pest, the first lerp psyllid ever found in the United States.

'We don't have lerps here, so their appearance caused quite a stir,' said Dahlsten.

'Lerp' is an Australian aboriginal word for the small sugary wax cup the psyllid nymph or juvenile stage produces to cover and protect itself. How the insect got to California is unknown, said Dahlsten, but it has spread rapidly.

'Oh, boy, it's really not looking good at all,' said horticultural analyst Carol Sweetapple of Stanford University, which has one of the worst infestations in the Bay Area.

Stanford red gums trees are defoliating for the second year in a row, she said, and some of them have lost 85 percent of their leaves. Sweetapple doesn't know if the trees do enough photosynthesis to survive with such small canopies.

'For us, the eucalyptus are very valuable, both for historical reasons -- we have a fabulous collection -- and for the ambiance,' she said. 'Imagine the hills behind Berkeley barren. That's what it would be like for us to lose these trees.'

It could take a year or more before it's known whether the wasps will be released in California. Dahlsten is hopeful they will prove safe. He believes the wasps feed only on lerp psyllids, but says it remains to be proven that they won't pose a danger to other insects.

Already, Dahlsten has requests from places that want to be at the top of the release list.

'Everybody wants the parasites,' said Dahlsten. 'Especially people in Los Angeles have been pressing me, saying, 'we need to release right away,' but I won't do this. We need to make sure it's safe. '

Dahlsten is credited with saving the state's foliage industry in 1991-93 from a disaster on a species of eucalyptus used in the flower trade. It would have cost California's eucalyptus growers millions of dollars to control the problem year after year had Dahlsten not discovered an insect cure.

Not everyone thinks scientists should bother trying to save eucalyptus in California. The trees were brought in from Australia in the 1850s and planted extensively in the early 1900s by timber speculators who mistakenly thought the wood would be valuable. Only later did they realize it had a tendency to warp, shrink and check, said Dahlsten.

But the eucalyptus tree remains a dominant feature of the California landscape.

'There are anti-eucalyptus and anti-exotics people who could care less if we lost them all,' he said. 'But other people who have these trees will do anything to save them, including dousing them with pesticides.' It costs $500 to inject each tree with pesticides, and Dahlsten is not sure it helps.

He said he wishes eucalyptus had never become so popular in California, but to get rid of them now requires a systematic removal and replacement plan.

Stanford University, for one, doesn't like that idea at all. So this fall, Stanford and other eucalyptus owners around the state will be cheering on the Berkeley solution.

For more information please go to Dr. Dahlsten's Red Gum Lerp Psyllid - Main Page.

September 5, 1999

Joanne Ikeda wins UC outreach award

Joanne Ikeda, a nationally recognized expert on pediatric obesity and the dietary practices of ethnic and immigrant populations, has received the 1999 Outstanding Outreach Award from the University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. The award, which includes a plaque and cash, is presented annually by the division's Affirmative Action Office to academics with Cooperative Extension, the university's outreach arm.
As a Cooperative Extension nutrition education specialist and codirector of the Center for Hunger and Obesity in the College of Natural Resources at UC Berkeley, Ikeda has been a leader in efforts to refine approaches to the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity at the local, state and national levels. She is author or coauthor of several books and training manuals designed to help healthcare professionals, paraprofessionals and parents instill healthy eating habits and encourage physical activity in children and adolescents. These publications include the training kit and accompanying videotape Children and Weight, What Health Professionals Can Do About It, coauthored with Patricia Crawford, also a nutrition specialist in the College of Natural Resources; and Kids Module: Parents and Children Sharing Food Tasks, produced with UC Berkeley Staff Research Associate Rita Mitchell. Ikeda recently provided in-service training for pediatricians who care for low-income children through California Children's Medical Services on the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity. She also works to eliminate discrimination based on size. She published a commentary in the August 1999 issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association promoting a size-acceptance approach to weight management with large people.

In addition, Ikeda has been a pioneer in conducting community collaborative research on the food habits and dietary quality of California's low-income, immigrant and ethnic populations. Her findings are used to develop culturally sensitive and relevant educational programs for these groups, which have included Hmong families in California's Central Valley; Vietnamese-speaking women in the Bay Area; Native Americans in Mariposa and other areas of California; and African-American women from eight California counties. Last year she received the Nutrition Education for the Public Award of Excellence from the American Dietetic Association for the project A Culturally Sensitive and Relevant Nutrition Education Program for Vietnamese Immigrants. She recently completed an in-service training module on increasing cross-cultural competence in nutrition education, which is being distributed by the American Dietetic Association and the Society for Nutrition Education.

By understanding and emphasizing the valuable dietary practices of cultural minorities, Ikeda is able to win their trust and help them maintain healthy habits without abandoning their traditional practices. "When she approached Native American communities, she emphasized the many positive Native American practices that her previous research had identified," says Professor Leonard Bjeldanes, chair of the College of Natural Resources' Department of Nutritional Science, who nominated Ikeda for the award. "Tribal leaders, who were inundated with grim statistics about health problems in their communities, were delighted to hear 'good news' and enthusiastically endorsed a nutrition education project that she developed in collaboration with their communities."

In supporting her nomination, colleagues stressed Ikeda's creative, innovative approaches to nutrition education. Barbara Emison Gaffield, advisor with the Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group of the American Dietetic Association, says Ikeda is "a talented, creative, innovative and visionary nutrition professional [whose] concerns are for children and adults of all cultures as individuals with strengths and needs."

Ikeda regularly shares her expertise with state and federal agencies. Recently she testified before the San Francisco Human Rights Commission in favor of a ban on size discrimination in city employment and housing; the commission voted unanimously in favor of the ban. She also testified before the Food and Drug Administration's Consumer Forum and the Federal Trade Commission for a case against a dietary supplement manufacturer charged with making false advertising claims. Commission attorneys said Ikeda's nutrition expertise played an important role in helping them win the case.

Ikeda's honors have included the Society of Nutrition Education Weight Realities Achievement Award; the Ethel Austin Martin Nutrition Education Distinguished Lecturer Award from South Dakota State University; and the Alumni Award for Outstanding Volunteerism from her alma mater, Cornell University. She has served as president of the California Dietetic Association and chair of the American Dietetic Association's Nutrition Education for the Public Practice Group and has been active on many advisory boards and committees.

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