Scharpf, R. F., Smith, R. S., and Vogler, D. R. 1988.
U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Station, Berkeley,
CA 94701, and
Pacific Southwest Region, San Francisco, CA 94111.
U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. No. PSW-103. (1988)
Pines on many high value recreational sites in the Western United States suffer damage and death from western dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum Engelm.). Dwarf mistletoe alone, however, is not solely responsible. Other pests and environmental conditions interact with dwarf mistletoe to damage and kill trees. An integrated pest management approach can help solve dwarf mistletoe-pest related problems. The approach includes setting management goals, considering the combined effects of all other pests and environmental impacts, and using direct treatments aimed at lowering pest populations, preventing spread and infection, and reducing hazard. These direct treatment methods include individual tree removal, thinning, pruning, buffer strips, and use of resistant trees or non-host species. Indirect treatments such as irrigation, fertilization, vegetation management, and regulating human impacts can also be used to help alleviate environmental or physical stresses that weaken trees and make them more subject to pest impacts.