PMB 113 Fall 2007 lecture: Wednesdays 2 - 3pm
lab: Mondays 2 - 5pm
California Mushrooms Course control number 70968 webpage: http://plantbio.berkeley.edu/~bruns/pmb113/ download course info pdf
Table of Contents Description Objectives Syllabus Fungal Dichotomous Keys Helpful Links Fungal Nomenclature Fungal Groups List of Readings Grades Collection project Lab practicals Microscope checkoff list Instructors Class Photo
This is a hands-on class in identification of macrofungi. Emphasis will be on laboratory work with fresh and dried fungi. Lectures on Wednesday focus on mushroom systematics, collection techniques and identification. Three weekend fieldtrips are required in addition to the weekly laboratory. Previous course experience with fungi is recommended but not required. Grades are based on tests and a collection (see below).
We will not stress higher-level classification, as many of the families are currently in a state of flux. The same could also be said for the genera, but we feel that learning the currently used names will continue to be of value for identification even as newly proposed genera achieve acceptance.
- Learn to recognize the major genera and common species of macrofungi in California
- Learn to key out unknown species
- Learn proper collection procedures for macrofungi
Topics covered in individual labs will probably vary; dependent on availability of fresh material, from that given below, but this is an approximation of the topics we plan to cover.
date topics lec notes slides (big) Monday 8/27/07 lab Using the microscope, sectioning and examining mushrooms microscope
Wednesday 8/29/07 lect Structures of mushrooms used for identification mushroom
Monday 9/03/07 Labor Day Holiday Wednesday 9/05/07 lect
Polypores and other Aphyllophorales
Monday 9/10/07 lab Common lawn mushrooms handout collecting
Wednesday 9/12/07 lect Agaricaceae, Psathyrellaceae, Bolbitiaceae handout lecture ppt Monday 9/17/07 lab Polypores and others polypores lecture ppt Wednesday 9/19/07 lect Amanitaceae Amanitaceae lecture ppt Monday 9/24/07 lab Amanita Wednesday 9/26/07 lect "tricholomataceae" - a hodgepodge of white spored agarics common genera lecture ppt Saturday 9/29/07 field
Saturday Fieldtrip to Point Reyes or Salt Point
leave early Saturday morning, return late afternoon. Cost: free
Monday 10/01/07 lab work on collections from fieldtrip (tricholomataceae) Wednesday 10/03/07 lect Russulales Monday 10/8/07 lab Russulales Wednesday 10/10/07 lect Boletales Monday 10/15/07 lab boletes and relatives Wednesday 10/17/07 lect "Pink" spored Agaricales Monday 10/22/07 test MIDTERM lab exam Wednesday 10/24/07 lect Strophariaceae, Cortinariaceae Saturday 10/27/07 field Friday-Sunday Fieldtrip to Redwood National Park Sunday 10/28/07 trip (leave Friday afternoon, return mid afternoon Sunday. Estimated cost: $40 Monday 10/29/07 lab work on collections from fieldtrip Wednesday 10/31/07 lect Gomphales, coral fungi, and Cantharellales Monday 11/05/07 lab gasteromycetes Wednesday 11/07/07 lect gasteromycetes" another non-phyllogenetic group Monday 11/12/07 lab HOLIDAY Wednesday 11/14/07 lect Ascomycetes Saturday 11/17/07 field Mendocino Foray leave 7:15 am Sunday 11/18/07 trip Mendocino Foray return 5:00 pm. Estimated cost: $40 Monday 11/19/07 lab fieldtrip collections Wednesday 11/21/07 lect mushroom natural history Monday 11/26/07 lab Ascomycetes Wednesday 11/28/07 lect Mushroom poisons Monday 12/03/07 lab work on collections Wednesday 12/05/07 lect Overview of major groups and common species Monday 12/10/07 test Lab review - last day to turn in collections Tuesday 12/18/07 test Final exam - in lab
Fungal Dichotomous Keys On-Line
Below you will find links to taxonomic keys for common genera of fungi. The Pacific Northwest Key Council also has a key to their keys here. Some groups or genera may not be below that are found on either the PNW Key Council site or the Common Fungi of Salt Point pdf. Also, see the links below for some helpful sites on identifying mushrooms.
Genus Pacific Northwest Key Council Common Fungi of Salt Point State Park Other Keys Agaricus Dr. Else Vellinga's key to Agaricaeae Agrocybe Albatrellus Amanita Amanita Armillaria Armillaria Bolbitius Boletus Boletes Botryobasidium University of Tubingen Bovista Lycoperdaceae Calvatia Lycoperdaceae Camarophyllus Cantharellus Chanterelles Caulorhiza Chlorophyllum Chlorophyllum Dr. Else Vellinga's key to species of Chlorophyllum Chroogomphus Gomphidiaceae Clavaria Club Fungi Clavariadelphus Club Fungi Clavulina Clitocybe Clitocybe Clitopilus Entolomataceae Collybia Gymnopusoid Coprinus Coprinus Cortinarius Crepidotus Crepidotus Cyathus Niduraliaceae Cystoderma Cystoderma Discina Helvellaceae Echinoporia University of Tubingen Entoloma Entolomataceae Flamulina Fomitopsis Polypores Galerina Ganoderma Polypores Geastrum Geastraceae Genea -North American Truffling Society Geopora Pezizales Gomphidius Gomphidiaceae Gomphus Veined Fungi Gymnopilus Gymnopilus Gyromitra Helvellaceae Hebeloma Helvella Helvellaceae Hericium Toothed Fungi Hydnellum Hydnum Toothed Fungi Hygrocybe Hygrophorus Hygrophorus Hypnodontia University of Tubingen Hypholoma Inocybe Inocybe Laccaria Lactarius Lactarius Leccinum Boletes Lentinellus Lentinellus Lentinus Lentinellus Lepiota Lepiota Leptonia Entolomataceae Leucopaxillus Limacella Limacella Lycoperdon Lycoperdaceae Lyophyllum Marasmius Marasmioid Fungi Melanoleuca Morchella Morels Mycena Mycenoid1 Mycenoid2 Nolanea Omphalina Omphalotus Panaeolus Panaeolus Panellus Pleurotoid Panus Pleurotoid Paxillus Peziza Pezizaceae Phaeocollybia Phaeolus Polypores Phellinus Polypores Pholiota Pholiota Pleurotus Pleurotoid Pluteus Mushroom Expert Polyporus Polypores Psathyrella Psathyrella Psilocybe Ramaria Ramaria1 Ramaria2 Rhizopogon Russula Russula1 Russula2 The Russulales Schizopora University of Tubingen Scleroderma Sclerodermataceae Truffle Key (Basids) Stereum Crusts Stropharia Suillus Boletes Thelephora Tofispora University of Tubingen Trametes Polypores Tremella Tricholoma Tricholoma Key to Tricholoma of Quebec Tricholomopsis Tricholomopsis Tubaria Tuber -North American Truffling Society Tylopilus Boletes Tyromyces Polypores Verpa Morels & False Morels Xerophalina Xylaria Club Fungi Families/Groups Corticaceae Endogonaceae Hypomyces Mycoanilitadelira Myxomycetes
Helpful Links For Identifying Mushrooms
Match Maker is a great on-line interactive program for identifying mushrooms, you can enter in the key morphological characters of your fungus and then the program automatically searches for potential matches in its database.
the following are links to sites with detailed mushroom photography and tutorials on how to collect and identify fungi.
- Fungi Photo
- Mushroom Journal
- Mushroom photos by Dr. Michael Beug
- The Fifth Kingdom
- Mushroom Hobby
- Mushroom Observer
- Pt. Reyes Mycoblitz
the site Index Fungorum can be used to search for species of fungi and find helpful photos and descriptions of them.
These pages and links have been established for the students (current and prospective) as a visual guide that will follow the course and provide helpful study guides. The links below will take you to a photo gallery that is organized by family groups of California's mushrooms.
Bolbitiaceae Boletaceae Cortinariaceae Polypores/Aphyllophorales Russulaceae Tricholomataceae Agaricaceae Amanitaceae Coprinaceae Coral fungi Entolomataceae Gomphidiaceae Letiotaceae Paxillaceae Pluteaceae Stropohariaceae
List of Readings
Mushrooms Demystified. David Arora, Ten Speed Press, 2nd edition.
How to Identify Mushrooms ot Genus VI: Modern Genera. David Largent and Timothy Baroni, Mad River Press.
How to identify Mushrooms to Genus III: Microscopic features. David Largent, David Johnson, Roy Watling. Mad River Press.
General Literature and Web References
Grades - a total of 1000 pt are possible for the course:
If you receive at least 90, 80, or 70% of the points you will receive at least an A, B or C respectively
- 400 for the collection
- 100 for the first lab practical
- 100 pts for two quizzes
- 100 point for the microscopic check off list
- 300 for the final lab practical
Each student will collect, identify, dry, label, and turn in a set of macrofungi. Each individual specimen should include properly dried material (i.e., one or more fruiting bodies), ideally a spore print, and a typed collection label containing: the scientific name of the fungus (including authority, if identified to species), date, location, habitat, collector, and brief notes on the distinguishing macroscopic and microscopic features that are the basis of the identification. A digital photo would also be useful, but is not required. Correct identifications are worth 10pt for each different genus, and 5 pts for each different species. Note that species level identifications are not necessary, but you will get more credit for species level identifications. If you do identify collections to species it is expected that you will consult additional technical keys beyond those in Mushrooms Demystified for the final determination. Points are deducted for misidentified specimens (-5 for genus, -3 for species), but if they are then identified correctly and returned they are worth the standard points minus the deduction (so approximately half credit). Points will be deducted if the material is too young, too old, or rotten, or if the label information is incorrect or incomplete.
Up to two collections can be turned in with detailed descriptions of the macroscopic and microscopic features. These collections are worth an additional 25 pts each. The description should be in the format that one might use if describing a specimen for publication as a new species. Full descriptions are worth a maximum of 25 pts each; points may be deducted if the descriptions are unclear or incomplete.
Total possible points for the collect project is 400. This can be achieved in various ways. Below is one example that is based on the minimum number of specimens:
30 different genera correctly identified 30 X10 = 300 10 of the above correctly identified to species 10 X 5 = 50 2 full descriptions of any of the above collections
(at least one required)
2 X 25 = 50 Total = 400
- Note that you acquire points more quickly by collecting many different genera, than by identifying species.
- 10 Bonus points are for all resupinate or cyphelloid collections that are correctly identified to genus.
- 25 Bonus points can be earned for working 3 or more hours at the fungus fair (see schedule above). This is a great way to review before the final.
- Please do not wait to turn in all of the collections at the end of course; turn them in as they are completed and we will keep a running tally of your collection points so that you know exactly were you are on project. The Last day you can turn in collections is the last day of class. Late collections will not be accepted.
- download the collections label sheet: [pdf] [doc]
Lab practicals will test your ability to recognize common genera and species that you have seen in the class, and to identify morphological features associated with mushroom taxonomy. They will be open book tests because you will need to key many of the specimens. However, you will not have enough time to key all the specimens on the test. This is because you are expected to be able to sight identify genera and species that you have seen before in the class.
Microscopic checkoff list
This is new this year. We are trying it as a devise to get people to become more familiar with microscopic characters and spore colors. The list, download [pdf] [excel], includes a set of feature that you are likely to encounter as you examine your mushroom collections. Lecture material, and the book How to identify Mushrooms to Genus III: Microscopic Features, will help you identify these features. When you succeed is finding them, have one of the instructors confirm it, and initial your sheet. Each correctly identified feature is worth 2 pts up to a maximum point total of 100 pts. If you encounter unique microscopic morphologies not listed on the check sheet, these can be added for equal credit. You can gain an additional point by using the lab camera (or your own) to take a digital image of a given structure that is good enough to include on the lab website. Download the microscope instructions pdf.
25 Bonus points are given if you volunteer 3 hrs at the Fungus Fair. This takes place at the Oakland Museum on December 1 and 2. Helping sort on Friday night November 30 is a great way to review. A signup sheet will be available a week or so before this event.
Tom Bruns, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology and Department of Environmental Science Policy and Management.
Office hours: 9-10am Mondays and Thursdays, or by appointment
Office: 321c Koshland Hall
email: email@example.com - a very effective way to make appointments!
Graduate Student Instuctor:
Nicole Hynson, Department of Environmental Science Policy & Management
Office hours: Wednesday 3-4 pm or by appointment
Office: 321 Koshland Hall
Else Vellinga, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
Dr. Vellinga will give one lecture, and is likely to visit the lab occasionally and go on the fieldtrips.
last updated: November 30 2007