Peer Reviewed Articles and Book Chapters (* with students and post docs)
130.* Hall, S. J., W. L. Silver, V. I. Timokhin, and K. E. Hammel. 2016. Iron addition suppressed mineralization of lignin methoxyls but did not impact total respiration from a humid tropical forest soil. In press pending revisions, Soil Biology & Biochemistry.
129* Yang, W. H. and W. L. Silver. 2016. Net soil–atmosphere fluxes mask patterns in gross production and consumption of nitrous oxide and methane in a managed ecosystem. In press pending revisions, Biogeosciences.
128.* Yang, W. H. and W. L. Silver. 2016. Gross nitrous oxide production drives net nitrous oxide fluxes across a salt marsh landscape. In press pending revisions, Global Change Biology.
127.* Ryals, R., V. T. Eviner, C. Stein, K. N. Suding, and W. L. Silver. 2016. Managing for multiple ecosystem services: are there tradeoffs between carbon sequestration, plant production and plant diversity in grasslands amended with compost? In Press, Ecosphere.
126.* Hall, S. J., W. L. Silver, V. I. Timokhin, and K. E. Hammel. 2015. Lignin decomposition is sustained under fluctuating redox conditions in humid tropical forest soils. Global Change Biology 21:2818-2828.
125.* Owen, J., W. J. Parton, and W. L. Silver. 2015. Long-term impacts of manure amendments on carbon and greenhouse gas dynamics of rangelands. Global Change Biology 21:4533–4547.
124.*Liptzin, D. and W. L. Silver. 2015. Spatial patterns in oxygen and redox sensitive biogeochemistry in tropical forest soils. Ecosphere 6: 1-14.
123.*Hall, S. J., G. McNicol, T. Natake, and W. L. Silver. 2015. Rapid turnover of tropical forest soil carbon is largely independent of soil properties. Biogeosciences doi:10.5194/bg-12-2471-2015.
122.*McNicol, G. and W. L. Silver. 2015. High sensitivity of CO2 and CH4 emissions to low oxygen availability in a peatland soil. Biogeochemistry 123:299-306.
121.* Hall, S. H. and W. L. Silver. 2015. Synergisms among reactive minerals and reducing conditions explain spatial patterns of soil carbon in humid tropical forest soils. Biogeochemistry 125:149-165.
120.* Yang, W. H., B. Traut, and W. L. Silver. 2015. Microbially-mediated nitrogen retention and loss in a salt marsh soil. Ecosphere 6(1):7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES14-00179.1.
119.* Owen, J. and W. L. Silver. 2015. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management: a review of field-based studies. Global Change Biology 21: 550-565.
- Silver, W. L. On being a Luquillo LTER Scientist. In, Willig, W.R. and L. R. Walker (eds) Long-Term Environmental Research: Changing the Nature of Science. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y. In press.
- *Ryals, R., M. D. Hartman, W. J. Parton, and M. S. DeLonge, and W. L. Silver. 2015. Long-term climate change mitigation potential with organic matter management on grasslands. Ecological Applications 25: 531-545.
- *Hall, S. J., J. Treffkorn, and W. L. Silver. 2014. Breaking the enzymatic latch: Impacts of reducing conditions on hydrolytic enzyme activity in tropical forest soils. Ecology 95: 2964-2973.
115.* Silver, W. L., S. J. Hall, and G. González. 2014. Differential effects of canopy trimming and litter deposition on litterfall and nutrient dynamics in a wet subtropical forest. Forest Ecology and Management 332: 47-55.
- *McNicol, G. and W. L. Silver. 2014. Separate effects of flooding and anaerobiosis on soil greenhouse gas emissions and redox sensitive biogeochemistry. JGR-Biogeosciences 119: 557-566.
113.*Yang, W. H., W. C. McDowell, P. D. Brooks, and W. L. Silver. 2014. New high precision approach for measuring 15N-N2 gas fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 69: 234-241.
112.*Ryals, R. M. Kaiser, M. S. Torn, A. A. Berhe, and W. L. Silver. 2014. Impacts of organic matter amendments on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in grassland soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 68: 52-61.
111.*Wood, T. E., M. Detto, and. W. L. Silver. 2013. Sensitivity of soil respiration to short-term variability in soil moisture and temperature in a humid tropical forest. PLOS ONE 8(12): e80965. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080965
110.*DeAngelis, K. M., D. Chivian, J. L. Fortney, A. P. Arkin, B. Simmons, T. C. Hazen, and W. L. Silver. 2013. Changes in microbial dynamics during long term decomposition in tropical forests. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 66: 60-68.
- Waide, R. B., D. E. Comarazamy, J. E. González, C. A. S. Hall, A. E. Lugo, J. C. Luvall, D. J. Murphy, J. R. Ortíz-Zayas, N. D. Ramírez-Beltran, F. N. Scatena and W. L. Silver. 2013. Climate variability at multiple spatial and temporal scales in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Ecological Bulletins 54:21-42.
108.* Hall, S. J. and W. L. Silver. 2013. Iron oxidation stimulates organic matter decomposition in humid tropical forest soils. Global Change Biology 19: 2804-2819.
107.* Delonge, M, R. Ryals, and W. L. Silver. 2013. A lifecycle model to evaluate carbon sequestration potential and greenhouse gas dynamics of managed grasslands. Ecosystems 16: 962-979.
106.*Hall, S. J., W. H. McDowell, and W. L. Silver 2013. When wet gets wetter: decoupling of moisture, redox biogeochemistry, and greenhouse gas fluxes in a humid tropical forest soil. Ecosystems 16: 576-589.
105.* Yang, W. H.. Y. A. Teh, and W. L. Silver. 2013. Measuring gross N2O production in soil: a reply to Well and Butterbach-Bahl. Global Change Biology, doi: 10.1111/gcb.12097.
104.* Bouskill, N. J., H. C. Lim, S. Borglin, R. Salve, T. E. Wood, W. L. Silver, and E. L. Brodie. 2013. Pre-exposure to short-term drought increases the resistance of subtropical forest soil bacterial communities to extended drought. ISME Journal 7: 384-394.
103.* Ryals, B. and W. L. Silver. 2013. Effects of organic matter amendments on net primary productivity and greenhouse gas emissions in annual grassland ecosystems. Ecological Applications 23: 46-59.
102.* Yang, W. H., K. A. Weber, and W. L. Silver. 2012. Nitrogen loss from soil via anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron reduction. Nature GeoScience 5: 538-541.
- Lugo, A. E., N. L. Harris, and W. L. Silver. 2012. Nutrient cycling in the Luquillo Experimental Forest. Chapter 15 in Harris, N.L.; Lugo, A.E.; Brown, S.; and Heartsill Scalley, T. (Eds.). Luquillo Experimental Forest: Research history and opportunities. EFR-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 152 p.
- * Rubol, S. W. L. Silver, A. Bellin. 2012. Hydrologic control on redox and nitrogen dynamics in a peatland soil. Science of the Total Environment 432:37-46.
- * DeAngelis, K. M., J. L. Foutney, S. Borglin, W. L. Silver, B. A. Simmons, and T. Hazen. 2012. Anaerobic decomposition of switchgrass by tropical soil-derived feedstock adapted consortia. mBio . doi:10.1128/ mBio.00249-11
- *Yang, W. H. and W. L. Silver. 2012. Application of the N2/Ar technique to soil-atmosphere N2 fluxes. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 26:449-459.
97.* Yang, W. H. D. J. Herman, D. Liptzin, and W. L. Silver. 2012. A new approach for removing interference from soil nitrate analyses. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 46: 123-128.
96.* Wood, T. E. and W. L. Silver. 2012. Drought creates a negative feedback to climate change in humid tropical forests. Global Biogeochemical Cycles VOL. 26, GB3005, doi:10.1029/2010GB004014. Featured in Nature News and Views Sept. 2012.
- McDowell, W. H., F. N. Scatena, R. B. Waide, N. Brokaw, G. R. Camilo, A. P. Covich, T. A. Crowl, G. González, E. A. Greathouse, P. Klawinski, D. J. Lodge, A. E. Lugo, C. M. Pringle, B. A. Richardson, M. J. Richardson, D. A. Schaefer, W. L. Silver, J. Thompson, D. J. Vogt, K. A. Vogt, M. R. Willig, L. L. Woolbright, X. Zou, J. K. Zimmerman. 2012. Geographic and Ecological Setting of the Luquillo Mountains. Pages 72-163 In Brokaw, N., T. A. Crowl, A. E. Lugo, W. H. McDowell, F. N. Scatena, R. B. Waide, and M. R. Willig (eds.). A Caribbean Forest Tapestry: The Multidimensional Nature of Disturbance and Response. Oxford University Press. Oxford, U.K.
- Scatena, F. N., F. Blanco, K. Beard, R. Waide, A. E. Lugo, N. Brokaw, W. L. Silver, B. Haines, and J. Zimmerman. 2012. Disturbance regime. Pages 164-200 in Brokaw, N., T. A. Crowl, A. E. Lugo, W. H. McDowell, F. N. Scatena, R. B. Waide, and M. R. Willig (eds.). A Caribbean Forest Tapestry: The Multidimensional Nature of Disturbance and Response. Oxford University Press. Oxford, U.K.
- Brokaw, N., J. Zimmerman, G. Camilo, A. Covich, T. Crowl, N. Fetcher,B. Haines, M. Gannon, J. Lodge, A. Lugo, R. Myster, C. Pringle, J.Sharpe, F. Scatena, T. Schowalter, W. L. Silver, J. Thompson, D. Vogt, K.Vogt, R. Waide, L. Walker, M. Willig, L. Woolbright, J. Wunderle, and X. Zou. 2012. Response to disturbance. Pages 201-271 in Brokaw, N., T. A. Crowl, A. E. Lugo, W. H. McDowell, F. N. Scatena, R. B. Waide, and M. R. Willig (eds.). A Caribbean Forest Tapestry: The Multidimensional Nature of Disturbance and Response. Oxford University Press. Oxford, U.K.
- Willig, M. R., C. P. Bloch, A. P. Covich, C A. S. Hall, D. J. Lodge, A. E. Lugo, W. L. Silver, R. B. Waide, L. R. Walker, and J. K. Zimmerman. 2012. Long-term research in the Luquillo Mountains: Synthesis and foundations for the future. Pages 361-442 in Brokaw, N., T. A. Crowl,A. E. Lugo, W. H. McDowell, F. N. Scatena, R. B. Waide, and M. R. Willig (eds.). A Caribbean Forest Tapestry: The Multidimensional Nature of Disturbance and Response. Oxford University Press. Oxford, U.K.
91.* Johnson, K. D., F. N. Scatena, and W. L. Silver. 2011. Atypical soil carbon distribution across a tropical steepland forest catena. Catena 87:391-397.
90.* Cleveland, C.C. A.R. Townsend, P. Taylor, S. Alvarez-Clare, M.M.C. Bustamante, G. Chuyong, S.Z. Dobrowski, P. Grierson, K.E. Harms, B.Z. Houlton, A. Marklein, W. Parton, S. Porder, S.C. Reed, C.A. Sierra, W.L. Silver, E.V.J. Tanner & W.R. Wieder. 2011. Relationships among net primary productivity, nutrients and climate in tropical rain forest: A pan-tropical analysis. Ecology Letters doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01658.x.
89.* Yang, W. H., Y. A. Teh, and W. L. Silver. 2011. Nitrous oxide production and consumption in a peatland pasture: a test of a field-based 15N-nitrous oxide pool dilution technique. Global Change Biology 17: 3577-3588.
- McGroddy, M, E., and W. L. Silver. 2011. Biogeochemical cycling in tropical forests. Pages 315-141 in M. Bush and J. Flenly eds, Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change. Praxis-Springer Verlag, Berlin 2nd edition.
87.* Silver, W.L., D. Liptzin, and M. Almaraz. 2013. Soil redox dynamics and biogeochemistry along a tropical elevation gradient. Ecological Bulletins 4:195–209.
86.* DeAngelis, K. M. M. Allgaier, Y. Chavarria, J. L. Fortney, P. Hugenholtz, B. Simmons, K. Sublette, W. L. Silver, T. C. Hazen. 2012. Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil. PLoS ONE 6(4): e19306. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019306.
85.* Baldocchi, D. B., D. Detto, O. Sonnentag, J. Verfaillie, Y. A. Teh. W. L. Silver, and N. M Kelly. 2012. The Trials and Tribulations of Measuring Methane Fluxes and Concentrations over a Peatland Pasture in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 153:177-187.
84.* Hall, S. J., W. L. Silver, and R. Amundson. 2011. Greenhouse gas fluxes from Atacama Desert Soils: A test of biogeochemical potential at the Earth’s arid extreme. Biogeochemistry DOI 10.1007/s10533-011-9650-7.
83.* Teh, Y. T., W. L. Silver, O. Sonnentag, M. Detto, M. Kelly, and D. D. Baldocchi. 2011. Large greenhouse gas emissions from a temperate peatland pasture. Ecosystems 14: 311-325.
82.* Sonnentag, O., M. Detto, B. R. K. Runkle, Y. A. Teh, W. L. Silver, M. Kelly, and D. D. Baldocchi. 2011. Carbon dioxide exchange of a pepperweed (*Lepidium latifolium* L.) infestation: How do flowering and mowing affect canopy photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration?, J. Geophys. Res., 116, G01021, doi:10.1029/2010JG001522.
81.* Liptzin, D., W. L. Silver, and M. Detto. 2011. Temporal dynamics in soil oxygen and trace gases in two tropical rain forests. Ecosystems 14: 171-182.
80.* Cusack, D. F., W. L. Silver, M. S. Torn, S. D. Burton, and M. K. Firestone. 2011. Changes in microbial community characteristics and soil organic matter with nitrogen additions in two tropical forests. Ecology 92: 621-632.
79.* Burgin, A. J., W. H. Yang, S. K. Hamilton, and W. L. Silver. 2011. Beyond C and N: How the microbial energy economy couples elemental cycles in diverse ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9: 44-52.
78.* Cusack, D. F., W. L. Silver, M. S. Torn, and W. H. McDowell. 2011. Effects of nitrogen additions on above- and belowground carbon dynamics in two tropical forests. Biogeochemistry. DOI 10.1007/s10533-010-9496-4
- Silver, W. L., A. W. Thompson, D. J. Herman, and M. K. Firestone. 2011. Is there evidence for limitations to nitrogen mineralization in upper montane tropical forests? Pages 418-427 in Bruijnzeel, L.A., Juvik, J., Scatena, F.N., Hamilton, L.S. & Bubb, P. (editors), Forests in the Mist: Science for Conserving and Managing Tropical Montane Cloud Forests. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.
76.* DeAngelis K. M, W. L. Silver, A.W. Thompson, M.K. Firestone. 2010. Microbial community response to recurring changes in soil redox status. Environmental Microbiology doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2010.02286.x.
75.* DeAngelis, K. M., J. M. Gladden, M. Allgaier, P. D’haeseleer, J. L. Fortney, A. Reddy, P. Hugenholtz, S. W. Singer, J. S. Vander Gheynst, W. L. Silver, B. A. Simmons, T. C. Hazen. 2010. Strategies for Enhancing the Effectiveness of Metagenomic-based Enzyme Discovery in Lignocellulolytic Microbial Communities. BioEnergy Research. DOI 10.1007/s12155-010-9089-z.
74.* Silver, W. L., R. Ryals, and V. Eviner. 2010. Soil carbon pools in California’s annual grassland ecosystems. Rangeland Ecology and Management 63: 128-136.
73.* Dubinsky, E. A., W. L. Silver, and M. K. Firestone. 2010. Microbial ecology drives coupled iron – carbon biogeochemistry in tropical forest ecosystems. Ecology 91: 2604-2612.
72.* Cusack, D. F. M. S. Torn, W. H. McDowell, and W. L. Silver. 2010. The Response of Heterotrophic Activity and Carbon Cycling to Nitrogen Additions and Warming in Two Tropical Soils. Global Change Biology 16:2555–2572.
71.* Liptzin, D. and W. L. Silver. 2009. Effects of carbon additions on iron reduction and phosphorus availability in a humid tropical forest soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41: 1969-1702.
70.* Cusack, D. F., W. L. Silver, and W. H McDowell. 2009. Biological nitrogen fixation in two tropical forests: ecosystem-level patterns and effects of nitrogen fertilization. Ecosystems 12: 1299-1315.
- Currie, W. S., M. E. Harmon, I. Burke, S. C. Hart, W. J. Parton, and W. L. Silver. 2009. Extension and limitation of the climate-litter quality paradigm to predict controls on plant litter decomposition over a decade. Global Change Biology. 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02086.x
68.* Teh, Y. A., W. L. Silver, and F. N. Scatena. 2009. A decade of ecosystem reorganization following multiple disturbances in a wet tropical forest. Plant and Soil: 393:197-212.
67.* Cusack, D. F., W. W. Chou. W. H. Yang. M. E. Harmon, and W. L. Silver. 2009. Controls on long-term root and leaf litter decomposition in neotropical forests. Global Change Biology 15:1339-1355.
66.* Marin-Spiotta, W. L. Silver, C. W. Swanston, and R. Ostertag. 2009. Soil carbon gain and loss during 80 years of reforestation of tropical pastures. Global Change Biology 15:1587-1594.
- Harmon, M. E., W. L. Silver, B. Fasth, H. Chen, W. J. Parton, & LIDET. 2009. Long-term patterns of mass loss during the decomposition of leaf and fine root litter: An intersite comparison. Global Change Biology 15: 1320-1338.
64.* McGroddy, M. E., W. L. Silver, R. Cosme de Oliveira Jr., W. Zamboni de Mello, and M. Keller. 2008. The fate of phosphorus in a highly weathered Amazonian forest ecosystem: biological versus geochemical cycling. JGR-Biogeosciences 113 doi:10.1029/2008JG000756.
63.* Ostertag, R., E. Marin-Spiotta, W. L. Silver, and J. Shulten. 2008. Litterfall and decomposition in relation to soil carbon pools along a secondary forest chronosequence in Puerto Rico. Ecosystems 11: 701-714.
62.* Templer, P. M., W. L. Silver, J. Pett-Ridge, and M. K. Firestone. 2008. Plant and microbial controls on nitrogen retention and loss in tropical forest soils. Ecology 89: 3030-3040.
61.* Chou, W. C., W. L. Silver, R. D. Jackson, A. W. Thompson, and B. Allen-Diaz. 2008. The sensitivity of annual grassland carbon cycling to the amount and timing of rainfall. Global Change Biology 14: 1382-1394.
60.* Marín-Spiotta, E., D.F. Cusack, R. Ostertag, and W.L. Silver. 2008. Trends in above and belowground carbon with forest regrowth after agricultural abandonment in the Neotropics. Chapter 2 In: R. Myster, ed. Post-agricultural Succession in the Neotropics. Springer, New York, NY. Pp 22-72.
59.* Teh, Y. A., E. A. Dubinski, W. L. Silver, and C. M. Carlson. 2008. Suppression of methanogenesis by dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in tropical rain forest soils: implications for ecosystem methane flux. Global Change Biology 14:413-422.
58.* Marin-Spiotta, E., C. W. Swanston, M. S. Torn, W. L. Silver, and S. D. Burton. 2008. Chemical and mineralogical control of soil carbon storage during tropical reforestation. Geoderma 143: 49-62.
57.* Adair, E. C. W.J. Parton, S.J. DelGrosso, W.L. Silver, S.A. Hall, M.E. Harmon, and S.C. Hart. 2008. A simple three pool model accurately describes patterns of long term, global decomposition in the Long Term Intersite Decomposition Experiment Team (LIDET) data set. Global Change Biology 14: 2636-2660.* Top 3 % of cited papers 2008-2010 GCB
56.* Parton*, W, W. L. Silver#, I. C. Burke, L. Grassens, M. E. Harmon, W. S. Currie, J. Y. King, E. C. Adair, L. A. Brandt, S. C. Hart, and B. Fasth. 2007. Global-scale similarities in nitrogen release patterns during long-term decomposition. Science 315:362-364. # Co-lead authors.
55.* Marin-Spiotta, E., R. Ostertag, and W. L. Silver. 2007. Long term patterns in reforestation of tropical pastures: plant community composition and aboveground biomass accumulation. Ecological Applications 17: 828-839.
54.* McGroddy, M. E. and W. L. Silver. 2007. Nutrient Cycling and Climate Change in Tropical Forests. Pages 295-316 in M. Bush and J. Flenly eds, Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change. Praxis-Springer Verlag, Berlin.
53.* Pett-Ridge, J., W. L. Silver, and M. K. Firestone. 2006. Redox fluctuations in a humid tropical forest soil impact N-cycling rates by framing the composition of the soil microbial community. Biogeochemistry 81:95-110.
52.* Teh, Y. A., W. L. Silver, M. E. Conrad, S. E. Borglin, and C. M. Carlson. 2006. Carbon isotope fractionation by methane-oxidizing bacteria in tropical rain forest soils, J. Geophys. Res., 111, G02001, doi:10.1029/2005JG000053.
51.* Chacon, N. W. L. Silver, E. A. Dubinsky, and D. F. Cusack. 2006. Iron reduction and soil phosphorus solubilization in humid tropical forests soils: the roles of labile carbon pools and an electron shuttle compound. Biogeochemistry 78: 67-84.
- Lugo, A.E., R.B. Waide, M.R. Willig, T. Crowl, F.N. Scatena, J.Thompson, W.H. McDowell, N.V.L. Brokaw, and W.L. Silver. 2012. Ecological Paradigms for the Tropics: Old Questions and Continuing Challenges. Pages 3-41 in Brokaw, N., T. A. Crowl, A. E. Lugo, W. H. McDowell, F. N. Scatena, R. B. Waide, and M. R. Willig (eds.). A Caribbean Forest Tapestry: The Multidimensional Nature of Disturbance and Response. Oxford University Press. Oxford, U.K.
49.* Teh, Y. A., and W. L. Silver. 2006. Effects of soil structure destruction on methane production and carbon partitioning between methanogenic pathways in tropical rain forest soils. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences III doi:10.1029/2005jg000020.
- Chambers, J. Q., and W. L. Silver. 2005. Ecophysiological and biogeochemical responses to atmospheric change. Pages 57-65 in O. Phillips and Y. Mahli, Tropical forests and global atmospheric change. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.
- Silver, W. L., A. W. Thompson, M. K. Firestone, A. Reich, and J. J. Ewel. 2005. Nitrogen retention and loss in tropical plantations and old growth forests. Ecological Applications 15: 1604-1614.
- Trumbore, S. E, E. Salazar da Costa, P. Barbosa de Camargo, L. A. Martinelli, D. Nepstad, D. Ray, and W. L. Silver. 2006. Dynamics of fine root carbon in Amazonian tropical ecosystems. Global Change Biology 12: 217-229.
45.* Teh, Y. A., W. L. Silver, and M. E. Conrad. 2005. Oxygen effects on methane production and oxidation in humid tropical forest soils. Global Change Biology 11:1283-1297.
44.* Silver, W. L., A. W. Thompson, M. E. McGroddy, R. K. Varner, J. R. Robertson, J. D. Dias, H. Silva, P. Crill, and M. Keller. 2005. Fine roots dynamics and trace gas fluxes in two lowland tropical forest soils. Global Change Biology 11: 290-306.
43.* Ostertag, R., W. L. Silver, and A. E. Lugo. 2005. Factors affecting mortality and resistance to damage following hurricanes in a subtropical moist forest. Biotropica 37: 16-24.
42.* Silver, W.L., L. Kueppers, A. E. Lugo, R. Ostertag, and V. Matzek. 2004. Carbon sequestration and plant community dynamics with reforestation of tropical pasture. Ecological Applications 14: 1115-1127.
- Chambers, J. Q., and W. L. Silver. 2004. Some ecophysiological and biogeochemical responses of tropical forests to atmospheric change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B. 359: 463–476.
40.* McGroddy, M. E., W. L. Silver, and R. Cosme de Oliviera, Jr. 2004. The effect of phosphorus availability on decomposition dynamics in a seasonal lowland Amazonian forest. Ecosystems 7: 172-179.
- Lugo, A. E., W. L. Silver, and S. Molina Colon. 2004. Biomass and nutrient dynamics of restored tropical forests. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 4: 731-746.
38.* Ostertag, R., F. N. Scatena, and W. L. Silver. 2003. Forest floor decomposition following hurricane litter inputs in several Puerto Rican forests. Ecosystems 6: 261-273.
37.* Varner, R. K., M. Keller, J. R. Robertson, J. D. Dias , H. Silva, P. M. Crill, M. McGroddy, and W. L. Silver. 2003. Experimentally induced root mortality increased nitrous oxide emission from tropical forest soils. Geophysical Research Letters 30: 1141-1145.
36.* Silver, W. L., A. E. Lugo, and D. Farmer. 2002. Soil organic carbon in tropical forests of the U. S. Pages 363-382 in J. Kimble, R. Birdsey, L. Heath, R. Follett, and R. Ratan (eds). The Potential of U.S. Forest Soils to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect.
35.* Pett-Ridge, J. and W.L. Silver. 2002. Effects of substrate and micro-climate change on the survival and growth of the bromeliad Guzmania berteroniana in a montane tropical forest. Biotropica 34: 211-224.
- Lugo, A.E., F.N. Scatena, W.L. Silver, S. Molina Colon, and P.G. Murphy. 2002. Pages 195-225 in L. H. Gunderson and L. Pritchard Jr (eds) Resilience and the Behavior of Large-Scale Systems. Island Press. Washington DC.
33.* Silver, W. L., and R. Miya. 2001. Global patterns in root decomposition: comparisons of climate and litter quality effects. Oecologia 129: 407-419.
- Silver, W.L., D.J. Herman, and M.K. Firestone. 2001. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in tropical forest soils. Ecology 82: 2410-2416.
- Lugo, A.E, W.L. Silver, S. Brown, F.N. Scatena, and J.J. Ewel. 2001. Managed ecosystems deserve greater attention. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 82: 91-93.
30.* Silver, W.L, E. Marin-Spiotta, and A.E. Lugo. 2001. The Caribbean. Pages 155-181 in Kapella, M. and A. Brown eds. Bosques Neotropicales Montanos Nubosos. IUCN Press, Holland.
29.* Silver, W.L., R. Ostertag, and A.E. Lugo. 2000. The potential for carbon sequestration through reforestation of tropical agricultural and pasture lands. Restoration Ecology 8:394-407.
28.* McGroddy, M. and W.L. Silver. 2000. Variations in belowground carbon storage and soil COB2B flux rates along a wet tropical climate gradient. Biotropica 32:614-624.
27.* Silver, W.L., J. Neff, E. Veldkamp, M. Mcgroddy, M. Keller, and R. Cosme. 2000. The effects of soil texture on belowground carbon and nutrient storage in a lowland Amazonian forest ecosystem. Ecosystems 3: 193-209.
- Wolter, V. W. L. Silver, D.C. Coleman, P. Lavelle, W.van der Putten, P. deruiter, D.H. Wall, D.U. Hooper, J.M. Dangerfield, L. Brussard, D.E. Bignell, V.K. Brown, K. Giller, J. Van der Koppel, J. Rusek, O. Sala, J. Tiedje, J.A. van Veen, and D. Wardle. 2000. Global change effects on above- and belowground biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems: interactions and implications for ecosystem functioning. BioScience 50: 1089-1098.
- D.U. Hooper, J.M. Dangerfield, L. Brussaard, D.H. Wall, D. Wardle, D.E. Bignell, V.K. Brown, D. Coleman, K. Giller, P. Lavelle, G.J. Masters, W.H. van der Putten, P.C. de Ruiter, J. Rusek, W. Silver, J. Tiedje, V. Wolters. 2000. Interactions between above and belowground biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems: patterns, mechanisms, and feedbacks. BioScience 50: 1049-1061.
- Keller, M., A.M. Weitz, B. Bryan, M.M. Rivera, and W.L. Silver. 2000. Soil-atmosphere nitrogen oxide fluxes: effects of root disturbance. Journal of Geophysical Research 105: 17,693-17,698.
- Rainey, S., K. Nadelhoffer, W.L. Silver, and M. Downs. 1999. The effects of chronic nitrogen additions on understory species abundance and nutrient content in a red pine plantation. Ecological Applications 9: 949-957.
- Silver, W.L., A.E. Lugo, and M. Keller. 1999. Soil oxygen availability and biogeochemical cycling along elevation and topographic gradients in Puerto Rico. Biogeochemistry 44: 301-328.
- Silver, W.L. 1998. The potential effects of elevated COB2B and climate change on tropical forest biogeochemical cycling. Climatic Change 39: 337-361.
- Olander, L., F.N. Scatena, and W.L. Silver. 1998. Effects of road construction on upper montane forest composition and succession in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Forest Ecology and Management 109: 33-49.
- Silver, W.L., F.N. Scatena, A.H. Johnson, T.G. Siccama, and F. Watt. 1996. At what temporal scales does disturbance affect belowground nutrient pools? Biotropica 28: 441-457.
- Zimmerman, J., M. Willig, L. Walker, and W.L. Silver. 1996. Disturbances and Caribbean Ecosystems. Biotropica: 28: 414-423.
- Walker, L. W.L. Silver, M. Willig, and J. Zimmerman. (EDS). 1996. Long Term Responses of Caribbean Ecosystems to Disturbance. Biotropica Special Issue.
- Silver, W.L., S. Brown, and A.E. Lugo. 1996. Effects of changes in biodiversity on ecosystem function in tropical forests. Conservation Biology 10:17-24.
- Silver, W.L., S. Brown, and A.E. Lugo. 1996. Biodiversity and Biogeochemical Cycling. Pages 49-67 in G. Orians, R. Dirzo, and H. Cushman eds. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Processes in Tropical Forests. Springer. Heidleberg.
- Vogt, K., D. Vogt, S. Brown, J. Tilley, R. Edmonds, W. Silver, and T. Siccama. 1995. Dynamics of forest floor and soil organic matter accumulation in boreal, temperate, and tropical forests. In R. Lal, J. Kimble, E. Levine, and B.A. Stewart eds., Soil Management and the Greenhouse Effect, Advances in Soil Science, CRC Press Boca Raton. Pages 159-178.
- Silver, W.L. and A.E. Lugo. 1995. Life in the cloud forest. In R. Folch, ed, Biosfera 2. Selves tropicals. Enciclopedia Catalana. Barcelona, Spain.
- Silver, W.L. and A.E. Lugo. 1995. The kingdom of epiphytes. In R. Folch, ed, Biosfera 2. Selves tropicals. Enciclopedia Catalana. Barcelona, Spain.
- Watt F., R. Beymer, F. N. Scatena, W. L. Silver, P. L. Weaver, and L. S. Hamilton. 1995. Comprehensive Bibliography on Tropical Montane Cloud Forest. Pages 247-260. in L.S. Hamilton, Juvik J., Scatena F.N., editors. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests. Ecological Studies 110. Springer-Verlag.
- Silver, W.L. 1994. Is nutrient availability related to plant nutrient use in humid tropical forests? Oecologia 98: 336-343.
- Silver, W.L., F.N. Scatena, A.H. Johnson, T.G. Siccama, and M.J. Sanchez. 1994. Nutrient availability in a montane wet tropical forest in Puerto Rico: spatial patterns and methodological considerations. Plant and Soil 164:129-145.
- Silver, W.L., and K.A. Vogt. 1993. Fine root dynamics following single and multiple disturbances in a subtropical wet forest ecosystem. Journal of Ecology 81:729-738.
- Scatena, F.N., W.L. Silver, T.G. Siccama, A.H. Johnson and M.J. Sanchez. 1993. Biomass and nutrient content of the Bisley Experimental Watersheds, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, before and after Hurricane Hugo, 1989. Biotropica 25:15-27.
- Vogt, K.A., D.A. Publicover, J. Bloomfield, J.M. Perez, D.J. Vogt, and W.L. Silver. 1993. Belowground responses as indicators of environmental change. Environmental and Experimental Botany33: 189-205.
- Berlyn, G.P., A.O. Anoruo, A.H. Johnson, D.R. Vann, R.L. Boyce, and W.L. Silver. 1992. Effects of filtered air and misting treatments on cuticles of red spruce needles on Whiteface Mountain, N.Y. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 1: 25-48.
- Silver, W.L., T.G. Siccama, A.H. Johnson, and C. Johnson. 1991. Changes in red spruce populations in the montane forests of the Appalachians. American Midland Naturalist 125:340-347.
- Silver, W.L. 1990. Disturbance and nutrient cycling. Belowground Ecology, Vol.1:2.
- Johnson, A.H., T.G. Siccama, W.L. Silver, and J.J. Battles. 1989. Decline of Red Spruce in High Elevation Forests of New York and New England. In D.C. Adriano and M. Havas eds. Acidic Deposition, Volume 1: Case Studies . Springer-Verlag, N.Y. Pages 85-112.
- Silver, W.L. Mangrove Factsheet, 1980, Sierra Club International Earthcare Center, N.Y., N.Y.