Chapter Outline

I. Mainstream Environmentalism

II. Environmental Movement: Ecosystems restored and maintained through community control and social movements. Small-scale, group decision-making, public demonstration, citizens' action approaches emerge, constituting opposite end of spectrum from conservation as mainstream environmentalism.

Discussion Questions

1. Are present bureaucratic responses to resource allocation and "management" (Forest Service, Environmental Impact Reports, and so on) and to pollution (Environmental Protection Agency, Superfund) sufficient for dealing with conservation issues? Why or why not?

2. Discuss the underlying assumptions about nature and the appropriate human relationship to nature in the following contemporary environmental movements: Deep Ecology, Greens Party, Bioregionalism, Social Ecology, Ecofeminism, Earth First!

3. How would you characterize current disagreements about goals and strategies among various American environmental organizations? Are such divisions useful? Is direct action justified? Is ecotage?

4. Is the contemporary environmental movement dominated by middle class concerns and male leadership? Justify your answer.

5. What is ecofeminism? What are some ecofeminist critiques of Western attitudes toward nature? In your opinion, is this line of argumentation a meaningful one?

6. Why should African Americans, Native Americans, and members of other minority groups become environmentalists?

7. What global environmental problems exist in the late twentieth century? Assess the analysis and proposed responses to the global crisis discussed in the documents.

8. How, in the opinion of Faber and O'Connor, have "the environmental movement's legislative victories of the 1960s and 1970s become one source of its failures in the 1980s?" (p. 557) Do you agree or disagree with this analysis? Support your argument.

9. Is the ecology movement today a force for social change or a safety-valve for the established order? Justify your answer.