Dr. Stephens’ publications on Google Scholar

Articles are available for individuals to download. Do not distribute widely. If a paper does not have a PDF, email Dr. Stephens and he will send you a copy.


Foster, D.E., Stephens, S.L., de Valpine, P. & Battles, J.J. (2024). Threats to the persistence of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) in the western USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 554, 121659. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Fossum, C., Collins, B.M. &Huerta, H.R. (2024). Early impacts of fire suppression in Jeffrey pine–Mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management, 564, 122003. PDF

North, M.P., Bisbing, S.M., Hankins, D.L., Hessburg, P.F., Hurteau, M.D., Kobziar, L.N., Meyer, M.D., Rhea, A.E., Stephens, S.L. & Stevens-Rumann, C.S. (2024). Strategic fire zones are essential to wildfire risk reduction in the Western United States. Fire Ecology, 20, 50. PDF

Fossum, C.A., Collins, B.M., Stephens, C.W., Lydersen, J.M., Restaino, J., Katuna, T. &Stephens, S.L. (2024). Trends in prescribed fire weather windows from 2000 to 2022 in California. Forest Ecology and Management, 562, 121966. PDF

Carmignani, L., Hajilou, M., Cobian-Iñiguez, J., Finney, M., Stephens, S.L., Gollner, M.J., & Fernandez-Pello, C. (2024). Smoldering of wood: Effects of wind and fuel geometry. Fire Technology, 60, p. 1667-1683. PDF

Northrop, H., Axelson, J.N., Das, A.J., Stephenson, N.L., Vilanova, E., Stephens, S.L., & Battles, J.J. (2024). Snag dynamics and surface fuel loads in the Sierra Nevada: Predicting the impact of the 2012–2016 drought. Forest Ecology and Management, 551, 121521. PDF



Parisien, M-A., Barber, Q.E., Bourbonnais, M.L., Daniels, L.D., Flannigan, M.D., Gray, R.W., Hoffman, K.M., Jain, P., Stephens, S.L., Taylor, S.W., & Whitman, E. (2023). Abrupt, climate-induced increase in wildfires in British Columbia since the mid-2000s. Communications Earth & Environment, 4(1), 309. PDF

Fertel, H.M., Collins, B.M., Lydersen, J.M., & Stephens, S.L. (2023). Vegetation type change in California’s Northern Bay Area: A comparison of contemporary and historical aerial imagery. Forest Ecology and Management, 542, 121102. PDF

Hendricks-Franco, L., Stephens, S.L., Silver, W.L., & Sousa, W.P. (2023). Removal of N-fixing vs. non-N-fixing herbs in postfire chaparral: Competition and contributions to soil N and C cycling. Ecosphere 14(8), e4607. PDF

Hankin, L.E., Anderson, C.T., Dickman, G.J., Bevington, P., & Stephens, S.L. (2023). How forest management changed the course of the Washburn fire and the fate of Yosemite’s giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum). Fire Ecology, 19(1), 40. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Steel, Z. L., Collins, B.M., Fry, D.L., Gill, S.J., Rivera-Huerta, H., & Skinner, C.N. (2023). Climate and fire impacts on tree recruitment in mixed conifer forests in northwestern Mexico and California. Ecological Applications 33(4), e2844. PDF

Low, K.E., Battles, J.J., Tompkins, R.E., Dillingham, C.P., Stephens, S.L., & Collins, B.M. (2023). Shaded fuel breaks create wildfire-resilient forest stands: Lessons from a long-term study in the Sierra Nevada. Fire Ecology, 19(1), 29. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Hall, L., Stephens, C.W., Bernal, A.A., & Collins, B.M. (2023). Degradation and restoration of Indigenous California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) stands in the northern Sierra Nevada. Fire Ecology, 19(1), 12. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Foster, D.E., Battles, J.J., Bernal, A.A., Collins, B.M., Hedges, R., Moghaddas, J.J., Roughton, A.T., & York, R.A. (2023). Forest restoration and fuels reduction work: Different pathways for achieving success in the Sierra Nevada. Ecological Applications, 34(2), e2932. PDF



Steel, Z.L., Jones, G.M., Collins, B.M., Green, R., Koltunov, A., Purcell, K.L., Sawyer, S.C., Slaton, M.R., Stephens, S.L., Stine, P. & Thompson, C. (2022). Mega‐disturbances cause rapid decline of mature conifer forest habitat in California. Ecological Applications, 33(2), e2763. PDF

Malandra, F., Vitali, A., Morresi, D., Garbarino, M., Foster, D.E., Stephens, S.L. &Urbinati, C. (2022). Burn severity drivers in Italian large wildfires. Fire, 5(6), 180. PDF

Herbert, C., Haya, B.K., Stephens, S.L. & Butsic, V. (2022). Managing nature-based solutions in fire-prone ecosystems: Competing management objectives in California forests evaluated at a landscape scale. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 5, 210. PDF

Crompton, O.V., Boisrame, G.F., Rakhmatulina, E., Stephens, S.L. & Thompson, S.E. (2022). Fire return intervals explain different vegetation cover responses to wildfire restoration in two Sierra Nevada basins. Forest Ecology and Management 521, 120429.

Margolis, E.Q., C.H. Guiterman, R.D. Chavardès, J.D. Coop, K. Copes-Gerbitz, D.A. Dawe, D.A. Falk, J.D. Johnston, E.Larson, H.Li, J.M. Marschall, C.E. Naficy, A.T. Naito, Marc-André Parisien, S. Parks, J. Portier, H.M. Poulos, K.M. Robertson, J.H. Speer, M. Stambaugh, T.W. Swetnam, A.J. T. Ichchha Thapa, C.D. Allen, Y. Bergeron, L.D. Daniels, P.Z. Fulé, D. Gervais, M.P. Girardin, G.L. Harley, J.E. Harvey, K.M. Hoffman, J.M. Huffman, M.D. Hurteau, L.B. Johnson, C.W. Lafon, M.K. Lopez, R.S. Maxwell, J. Meunier, M. North, M.T. Rother, M.R. Schmidt, R.L. Sherriff, L.A. Stachowiak, A. Taylor, E.J. Taylor, V. Trouet, M.L. Villarreal, L.L. Yocom, K.B. Arabas, A.H. Arizpe, D. Arseneault, A. Azpeleta Tarancón, C. Baisan, E. Bigio, F. Biondi, G.D. Cahalan, A. Caprio, J. Cerano-Paredes, B.M. Collins, D.C. Dey, I. Drobyshev, C. Farris, M. Adele Fenwick, W. Flatley, M.L. Floyd, Z. Gedalof, A. Holz, L.F. Howard, D.W. Huffman, J. Iniguez, K.F. Kipfmueller, S.G. Kitchen, K. Lombardo, D. McKenzie, A.G. Merschel, K.L. Metlen, J. Minor, C.D. O’Connor, L. Platt, W.J. Platt, T. Saladyga, A.B. Stan, S. Stephens, C. Sutheimer, R. Touchan, & P.J. Weisberg. 2022. The North American tree‐ring fire‐scar network. Ecosphere, 13(7), e4159. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Bernal, A.A., Collins, B.M., Finney, M.A., Lautenberger, C. & Saah, D. (2022). Mass fire behavior created by extensive tree mortality and high tree density not predicted by operational fire behavior models in the southern Sierra Nevada. Forest Ecology and Management, 518, 120258. PDF

Levine, J.I., Collins, B.M., Steel, Z.L., de Valpine, P. & Stephens, S.L. (2022). Higher incidence of high‐severity fire in and near industrially managed forests. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 20(7), 397-404.

Bernal, A.A., Stephens, S.L., Collins, B.M. & Battles, J.J. (2022). Biomass stocks in California’s fire-prone forests: mismatch in ecology and policy. Environmental Research Letters 17(4), 044047. PDF

Tubbesing, C.L., Young, D.J., York, R.A., Stephens, S.L. & Battles, J.J. (2022). Incorporating shrub neighborhood dynamics to predict forest succession trajectories in an altered fire regime. Ecosystems 25(1), 136-154. PDF

North, M.P., Tompkins, R.E., Bernal, A.A., Collins, B.M., Stephens, S.L. & York, R.A. (2022). Operational resilience in western US frequent-fire forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 507,  120004. PDF

Cobian-Iñiguez, J., Richter, F., Carmignani, L., Liveretou, C., Xiong, H., Stephens, S., Finney, M., Gollner, M. & Fernandez-Pello, C. (2022). Wind effects on smoldering behavior of simulated wildland fuels. Combustion Science and Technology 1-18.

Jones, G.M., Keyser, A.R., Westerling, A.L., Baldwin, W.J., Keane, J.J., Sawyer, S.C., Clare, J.D., Gutiérrez, R.J. and Peery, M.Z., 2022. Forest restoration limits megafires and supports species conservation under climate change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 20(4):210-216.

York, R., Levine, J., Foster, D., Stephens, S. and Collins, B., 2022. Silviculture can facilitate repeat prescribed burn programs with long-term strategies. California Agriculture 75(3):104-111. PDF



R.K. Hagmann, P.F. Hessburg, S.J. Prichard, N.A. Povak, P.M. Brown, P.Z. Fulé, R.E. Keane, E.E. Knapp, J.M. Lydersen, K.L. Metlen, M.J. Reilly, A.J. Sánchez Meador, S.L. Stephens, J.T. Stevens, A.H. Taylor, L.L. Yocom, M.A. Battaglia, D.J. Churchill, L.D. Daniels, D.A. Falk, P. Henson, J.D. Johnston, M.A. Krawchuk, C.R. Levine, G.W. Meigs, A.G. Merschel, M.P. North, H.D. Safford, T.W. Swetnam, and A.E.M. Waltz. 2021. Evidence for widespread changes in the structure, composition, and fire regimes of western North American forests. Ecological Applications 31(8) p.e02431. PDF

Wilkin, K., Ponisio, L., Fry, D.L., Collins, B.M., Moody, T. and Stephens, S.L., 2021. Drivers of understory plant communities in Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests with pyrodiversity. Fire Ecology 17(1):1-18. PDF

Moore, I.B., Collins, B.M., Foster, D.E., Tompkins, R.E., Stevens, J.T. and Stephens, S.L., 2021. Variability in wildland fuel patches following high-severity fire and post-fire treatments in the northern Sierra Nevada. International Journal of Wildland Fire 30(12):921-932.

North, M.P., York, R.A., Collins, B.M., Hurteau, M.D., Jones, G.M., Knapp, E.E., Kobziar, L., McCann, H., Meyer, M.D., Stephens, S.L. and Tompkins, R.E., 2021. Pyrosilviculture needed for landscape resilience of dry western United States forests. Journal of Forestry 119(5):520-544.

Steel, Z.L., Foster, D., Coppoletta, M., Lydersen, J.M., Stephens, S.L., Paudel, A., Markwith, S.H., Merriam, K. and Collins, B.M., 2021. Ecological resilience and vegetation transition in the face of two successive large wildfires. Journal of Ecology 109(9):3340-3355.

Stephens, S.L., Thompson, S., Boisramé, G., Collins, B.M., Ponisio, L.C., Rakhmatulina, E., Steel, Z.L., Stevens, J.T., van Wagtendonk, J.W. and Wilkin, K., 2021. Fire, water, and biodiversity in the Sierra Nevada: a possible triple win. Environmental Research Communications 3(8) p.081004. PDF

Collins, B.M., Bernal, A., York, R.A., Stevens, J.T., Juska, A. and Stephens, S.L., 2021. Mixed‐conifer forest reference conditions for privately owned timberland in the southern Cascade Range. Ecological Applications 31(7) p.e02400.

Rakhmatulina, E., Stephens, S. and Thompson, S., 2021. Soil moisture influences on Sierra Nevada dead fuel moisture content and fire risks. Forest Ecology and Management 496 p.119379.

Stephens, S.L., van Wagtendonk, J.W., Agee, J.K. and Wakimoto, R.H., 2021. Introduction to the article by Harold Biswell: Prescribed burning in Georgia and California compared. Fire Ecology 17:1-4. PDF

Steel, Z.L., Collins, B.M., Sapsis, D.B. and Stephens, S.L., 2021. Quantifying pyrodiversity and its drivers. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 288 p.20203202.

Dudney, J., York, R.A., Tubbesing, C.L., Roughton, A.T., Foster, D., Stephens, S.L. and Battles, J.J., 2021. Overstory removal and biological legacies influence long-term forest management outcomes on introduced species and native shrubs. Forest Ecology and Management 491 p.119149.

Hendricks-Franco, L., Stephens, S.L. and Sousa, W.P., 2021. Mammalian herbivory in post-fire chaparral impacts herbaceous composition but not N and C cycling. Journal of Plant Ecology 14(2):213-228.

Stephens, S.L., LeRoy Westerling, A., Hurteau, M.D., Zachariah Peery, M., Schultz, C.A. and Thompson, S., 2021. Undesirable outcomes in seasonally dry forests. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 19(2):87-88. PDF

Ehbrecht, M., Seidel, D., Annighöfer, P., Kreft, H., Köhler, M., Zemp, D.C., Puettmann, K., Nilus, R., Babweteera, F., Willim, K. and Stiers, M.,  Soto, D., Boehmer, H.J., Fisichelli, N.,  Burnett, M., Juday, G., Stephens, S.L., and Ammer, C. 2021. Global patterns and climatic controls of forest structural complexity. Nature Communications 12(1):519.

Stephens, S.L., Battaglia, M.A., Churchill, D.J., Collins, B.M., Coppoletta, M., Hoffman, C.M., Lydersen, J.M., North, M.P., Parsons, R.A., Ritter, S.M. and Stevens, J.T., 2021. Forest restoration and fuels reduction: Convergent or divergent? Bioscience 71(1):85-101.

Murphy, J.S., York, R., Huerta, H.R. and Stephens, S.L., 2021. Characteristics and metrics of resilient forests in the Sierra de San Pedro Martír, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 482 p.118864.

Rakhmatulina, E., Boisramé, G., Stephens, S.L. and Thompson, S., 2021. Hydrological benefits of restoring wildfire regimes in the Sierra Nevada persist in a warming climate. Journal of Hydrology 593 p.125808. PDF

Low, K.E., Collins, B.M., Bernal, A., Sanders, J.E., Pastor, D., Manley, P., White, A.M. and Stephens, S.L., 2021. Longer-term impacts of fuel reduction treatments on forest structure, fuels, and drought resistance in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Forest Ecology and Management 479 p.118609.

Jaffe, M.R., B.M. Collins, J. Levine, H. Northrop, F. Malandra, D. Krofcheck, M.D. Hurteau, S.L. Stephens, and M. North. 2021. Prescribed fire shrub consumption in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 51(11):1718-1725.



Tubbesing, C. L., R. A. York, S. L. Stephens, and J. J. Battles. 2020. Rethinking fire‐adapted species in an altered fire regime. Ecosphere 11:e03091. (

Stevens, J.T., G. F. S. Boisramé, E. Rakhmatulina, S.E. Thompson, B.M. Collins, and S.L. Stephens. 2020. Forest vegetation change and its impacts on soil water following 47 years of managed wildfire. Ecosystems 23: 1547–1565.

Stephens, S.L., A.L. Westerling, M.D. Hurteau, M.Z. Peery, C.A. Schultz, S. Thompson. 2020. Fire and climate change: Conserving seasonally dry forests is still possible. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 18: 354-360. PDF

Levine, J.I., B.M. Collins, R.A. York, D.E. Foster, D.L. Fry, and S.L. Stephens. 2020. Forest stand and site characteristics influence fuel consumption in repeat prescribed burns. International J. of Wildland Fire 29(2) 148-159.


Boisramé, G. F. S., S. E. Thompson, C. (Naomi) Tague, and S. L. Stephens. 2019. Restoring a Natural Fire Regime Alters the Water Balance of a Sierra Nevada Catchment. Water Resources Research 55:5751–5769. PDF

Levine, C. R., C. V. Cogbill, B. M. Collins, A. J. Larson, J. A. Lutz, M. P. North, C. M. Restaino, H. D. Safford, S. L. Stephens, and J. J. Battles. 2019. Estimating historical forest density from land-survey data: a response to Baker and Williams (2018). Ecological Applications 29(8):e01968. 10.1002/eap.1968.PDF

Moreira, F, Ascoli, D, Safford, H, Adams, M, Moreno, J.M., Pereira, J.C., Catry, F., Armesto, J., Bond, W.J., Gonzalez, M., Curt, T., Koutsias, N., McCaw, L. Price, O, Pausas, J., Rigolo, E., Stephens, S., Tavsanoglu, C., RamonVallejo, V., VanWilgen, B., Xanthopoulos, G., and Fernandes, P.M. 2019. Wildfire Management in Mediterranean-Type Regions: Paradigm Change Needed. Environ. Research Letters 2019 15: 1–6. PDF

Lydersen, J., B.M. Collins, M. Coppoletta, M.R. Jaffe, H. Northrop, and S.L. Stephens.2019. Fuel dynamics and reburn severity following high severity fire in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest. Fire Ecology 15: 43. PDF

Collins, B.M., S.L. Stephens, and R.A. York. 2019. Perspectives from a long-term study of fuel reduction and forest restoration in the Sierra Nevada. Tree Rings 29: 7-9. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Kobziar, L.N., Collins, B.M., Davis, R., Fulé, P.Z., Gaines, W., Ganey, J., Guldin, J.M., Hessburg, P., Hiers, K., Hoagland, S., Keane, J.J., Masters, R.E., McKellar, A.E., Montague, W., North, M., and Spies, T.A. 2019. Is fire for the birds? How two rare species influence fire management across the United States. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 17: 391–399. PDF

Boisramé, G.F.S., S.E. Thompson, C. Tague, and S.L. Stephens. 2019. Restoring a natural fire regime alters the water balance of a Sierra Nevada catchment. Water Resources Research

Hatch, L.E., C.N. Jen, N.M. Kreisberg, V. Selimovic,k R.J. Yokelson, C. Stamatis, R.A. York, D. Foster, S.L. Stephens, A.H. Goldstein, and K.C. Barsanti. 2019. Highly speciated measurements of terpenoids emitted from laboratory and mixed-conifer forest prescribed fires. Environ. Sci. Technol. 53: 9418-9428.

Hessburg PF, Miller CL, Parks SA, Povak NA, Taylor AH, Higuera PE, Prichard SJ, North MP, Collins BM, Hurteau MD, Larson AJ, Allen CD, Stephens SL, Rivera-Huerta H, Stevens-Rumann CS, Daniels LD, Gedalof Z, Gray RW, Kane VR, Churchill DJ, Hagmann RK, Spies TA, Cansler CA, Belote RT, Veblen TT, Battaglia MA, Hoffman C, Skinner CN, Safford HD, Salter RB. 2019. Climate, environment, and disturbance history govern resilience of Western North American Forests. Front Ecol Evol 7:239. PDF

Annighöfer, P. D. Seidel, C. Ammer, S.L. Stephens, and R.A. York. 2019. Silvicultural implications from analyzing light induced height growth development of eight North American juvenile tree species in mixed-conifer forests. Forestry 2019; 00,1 –11, doi:10.1093/forestry/cpz038. PDF

Hu, T. Q,. Ma, Y. Su, J.J.Battles, B.M.Collins, S.L. Stephens, M. Kelly, and Q. Guo. 2019. A simple and integrated approach for fire severity assessment using bi-temporal airborne LiDAR data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 78: 25-38.

Tubbesing, C.L., Fry, D.L., Roller, G.B., Collins, B.M., Fedorova, V.A., Stephens, .L., Battles, J.J., 2019. Strategically placed landscape fuel treatments decrease fire severity and promote recovery in the northern Sierra Nevada. For. Ecol. Manage. 436, 45–55.


Fry, D.L., Stevens, J.T., Potter, A.T., Collins, B.M., Stephens, S.L., 2018. Surface fuel accumulation and decomposition in old-growth pine-mixed conifer forests, northwestern Mexico. Fire Ecol. 14, 1:15. PDF

Stephens, S.L., M. Maier, L. Gonen, J.D. York, B.M. Collins, and D.L. Fry. 2018. Variation in fire scar phenology from mixed conifer trees in the Sierra Nevada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 48: 101–104.

Sommerfeld, A., C. Senf  B. Buma, A.W. D’Amato, T. Després, I. Díaz-Hormazábal, S. Fraver, L.E. Frelich, Á.G. Gutiérrez, S.J. Hart, B.J. Harvey, H.S. He, T. Hlásny, A. Holz, T. Kitzberger, D. Kulakowski, D. Lindenmayer, A.S. Mori, J. Müller, J. Paritsis, G.L.W. Perry, S.L. Stephens, M. Svoboda, M.G. Turner, T.T. Veblen, and R. Seidl. 2018. Patterns and drivers of recent disturbances across the temperate forest biome. Nature Communications 9:4355 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-06788-9.

Kelly, M., Su, Y., Di Tommaso, S., Fry, D., Collins, B., Stephens, S., & Guo, Q. (2018). Impact of Error in Lidar-Derived Canopy Height and Canopy Base Height on Modeled Wildfire Behavior in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Remote Sensing, 10(1), 10.

Shive, K.L., Preisler, H.K., Welch, K.R., Safford, H.D., Butz, R.J., O’Hara, K.L., Stephens, S.L., 2018. From the stand-scale to the landscape-scale: predicting the spatial patterns of forest regeneration after disturbance. Ecological Applications 28: 1626–1639.

Collins, B.M. J.M. Lydersen, R.G. Everett, and S.L. Stephens. 2018. How does forest recovery following moderate-severity fire influence effects of subsequent wildfire in mixed-conifer forests? Fire Ecology 14:3.

Boisramé, G., S. Thompson, and S.L. Stephens. 2018. Hydrologic responses to restored wildfire regimes revealed by soil moisture vegetation relationships. Advances in Water Resources 112: 124-146.

van Wagtendonk, J., N.G. Sugihara, S.L. Stephens, A.E. Thode, K.E. Shaffer, and J. Fites-Kaufman (Editors). 2018. Fire in California Ecosystems, 2nd Edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 500 pgs.

Stephens, S.L., J.M. Kane, and J.D. Stuart, 2018. North Coast Bioregion. In: Fire in California Ecosystems, 2nd Edition. van Wagtendonk, J., N.G. Sugihara, S.L. Stephens, A.E. Thode, K.E. Shaffer, and J. Fites-Kaufman (Editors). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. Pgs. 149-170.

Stephens, S.L. and N.G. Sugihara. 2018. Fire Management and Policy Since European Settlement. In: Fire in California Ecosystems, 2nd Edition. van Wagtendonk, J., N.G. Sugihara, S.L. Stephens, A.E. Thode, K.E. Shaffer, and J. Fites-Kaufman (Editors). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. Pgs. 399-410.

Stephens, S.L. S.J. Husari, H.T. Nichols, N.G. Sugihara, and B.M. Collins. 2018. Fire and Fuel Management. In: Fire in California Ecosystems, 2nd Edition. van Wagtendonk, J., N.G. Sugihara, S.L. Stephens, A.E. Thode, K.E. Shaffer, and J. Fites-Kaufman (Editors). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. Pgs. 411-428.

Sugihara, N.G., J.W. van Wagtendonk, S.L. Stephens, K.E. Shaffer, A.E. Thode, and J. Fites-Kaufman. 2018. The Future of Fire in California Ecosystems. In: Fire in California Ecosystems, 2nd Edition. van Wagtendonk, J., N.G. Sugihara, S.L. Stephens, A.E. Thode, K.E. Shaffer, and J. Fites-Kaufman (Editors). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. pp 517-522.

Hagmann, R.K., J.T. Stevens, J. Lydersen, B.M. Collins, J.J. Battles, P.F. Hessburg, C.R. Levine, A.G. Merschel, S.L. Stephens, A.H. Taylor, J.F. Franklin, D.L. Johnson, and K.N. Johnson. 2018. Improving the use of early timber inventories in reconstructing historical dry forests and fire in the western United States: Comment. Ecosphere 9:e02232.

Newman, E.A., J.B. Potts, M.W. Tingley, C. Vaughn, and S.L. Stephens. 2018. Chaparral bird community responses to prescribed fire and shrub removal in three management seasons. Journal of Applied Ecology 55:1615–1625.

Jen, C., L. Yutong, L. Hatch, N. Kreisberg, C. Stamatis, K. Kristensen, J. Battles, S. Stephens, R. York, K. Barsanti, and A. Goldstein. 2018. High hydroquinone emissions from burning manzanita. Environmental Science and Technology Letters 5(6): 309–314.

Omi, P.N., B.M. Collins, and S.L. Stephens. 2018. Forestry and US Forest Service fire management: Moving beyond conventional practices. In: 193 Million Acres: Toward a Healthier and More Resilient US Forest Service (S.W. Wilent editor). Society of American Foresters, Bethesda, Maryland. Pgs. 105-128.

Stephens, S.L., J. T Stevens, B.M. Collins, R.A. York, and J.M. Lydersen. 2018. Historical and modern landscape forest structure in fir (Abies)-dominated mixed conifer forests in the northern Sierra Nevada, USA. Fire Ecology

Fry, D.L., J.T Stevens, A.T. Potter, B.M. Collins, and S.L. Stephens. 2018. Surface fuel accumulation and decomposition in old-growth pine−mixed conifer forests, northwestern Mexico. Fire Ecology (in press).

Stephens, S.L., Collins, B.M., Fettig, C.J., Finney, M.A., Hoffman, C.M., Knapp, E.E., North, M.P., Safford, H., Wayman, R.B., 2018. Drought, tree mortality, and wildfire in forests adapted to frequent fire. BioScience 68: 77–88.


Collins, B.M., Fry, D.L., Lydersen, J.M., Everett, R., and Stephens, S.L. 2017. Impacts of different land management histories on forest change. Ecological Applications 27: 2475–2486. PDF

Krasnow, K.D., Fry, D.L., and Stephens, S.L. 2017. Spatial, temporal and latitudinal components of historical fire regimes in mixed conifer forests, California. Journal of Biogeography 44:1239–1253. PDF

Boisramé, G. F. S., Thompson, S. E., Kelly, M., Cavalli, J., Wilkin, K. M., & Stephens, S. L. (2017). Vegetation change during 40 years of repeated managed wildfires in the Sierra Nevada, California. Forest Ecology and Management, 402(August), 241–252.

Shive, K. L., Estes, B. L., White, A. M., Safford, H. D., O’Hara, K. L., & Stephens, S. L. (2017). Rice straw mulch for post-fire erosion control: assessing non-target effects on vegetation communities. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 26(6), 538. PDF

Collins, B. M., Stevens, J. T., Miller, J. D., Stephens, S. L., Brown, P. M., & North, M. P. 2017. Alternative characterization of forest fire regimes: incorporating spatial patterns. Landscape Ecology. PDF

Levine, C.R., Cogbill, C.V., Collins, B.M., Larson, A.J., Lutz, J.A., North, M.P., Restaino, C.M., Safford, H.D., Stephens, S.L. and Battles, J.J. (2017). Evaluating a new method for reconstructing forest conditions from General Land Office survey records. Ecological Applications doi:10.1002/eap.1543. PDF

Forrestel, A. B., Andrus, R. A., Fry, D. L., & Stephens, S. L. (2017). Fire history and forest structure along an elevational gradient in the southern Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. Fire Ecology, 13(1). PDF

Yocom Kent, L. L., Fulé, P. Z., Brown, P. M., Cerano-Paredes, J., Cornejo-Oviedo, E., Cortés Montaño, C.,  Drury, S. A., Falk, D. A., Meunier, J., Poulos, H. M., Skinner, C. N., Stephens, S. L., Villanueva-Díaz, J. (2017). Climate drives fire synchrony but local factors control fire regime change in northern Mexico. Ecosphere, 8(3), e01709. PDF

Chiono, L. A., Fry, D. L., Collins, B. M., Chatfield, A. H., & Stephens, S. L. (2017). Landscape-scale fuel treatment and wildfire impacts on carbon stocks and fire hazard in California spotted owl habitat. Ecosphere, 8(1), e01648. PDF

Stevens, J.T., B.M. Collins, J.D. Miller, M.P. North, and S.L. Stephens. 2017. Changing spatial patterns of stand-replacing fire in California conifer forests. Forest Ecology and Management 406: 28-36.

Stephens, S.L. 2017. Fire and fuels management: What works where? In: A Century of Wildland Fire Research: Contributions to Long-term Approaches for Wildland Fire Management: Proceedings of a Workshop. National Academies of Science and Medicine. The National Academies Press. Pgs. 48-54. PDF

Butsic, V., H. McCann, J. Axelson, B. Gray, Y. Jin, J. Mount, S. Stephens, and W. Stewart. 2017. Improving the Health of California’s Headwater Forests. Public Policy Institute of California. 36 pages. PDF

Wilkin, K., L.C. Ponisio, D.L. Fry, C.L. Tubbesing, J.B. Potts, and S.L. Stephens. 2017. Decade-long plant community responses to shrubland fuel reduction. Fire Ecology 13(2): 105-136. PDF


Berleman, S.A., Suding, K.N., Fry, D.L. Bartolome, J.W., and Stephens, S.L. 2016. Prescribed fire effects on population dynamics of an annual grassland.  Rangeland Ecology and Management 69:423-429.

Kramer, H. A., Collins, B. M., Gallagher, C. V., Keane, J. J., Stephens, S. L., & Kelly, M. (2016). Accessible light detection and ranging: estimating large tree density for habitat identification. Ecosphere, 7(12)(December). PDF

Krasnow, K. D., Fry, D. L., & Stephens, S. L. (2016). Spatial, temporal and latitudinal components of historical fire regimes in mixed conifer forests, California. Journal of Biogeography, 1–15. PDF

Taylor, A. H., Trouet, V., Skinner, C. N., & Stephens, S. L. (2016). Socio-Ecological Transitions Trigger Fire Regime Shifts and Modulate Fire-Climate Interactions in the Sierra Nevada, USA 1600-2015 CE. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 113(48), 13684–13689. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Miller, J.D., Collins, B.M., North, M.P., Keane, J.J., & Roberts, S. L. (2016). Wildfire impacts on California spotted owl nesting habitat in the Sierra Nevada. Ecosphere, 7(October), 1–21. PDF

Stephens, S. L., B. M. Collins, E. Biber, and P. Z. Fulé. 2016. U.S. federal fire and forest policy: emphasizing resilience in dry forests. Ecosphere 7(11):e01584. PDF

Collins, B.M., Lydersen, J.M., Fry, D.L., Wilkin, K., Moody, T., & Stephens, S.L. (2016). Variability in vegetation and surface fuels across mixed-conifer-dominated landscapes with over 40 years of natural fire. Forest Ecology and Management, 381, 74–83.

Molina-Terrén, D.M., Fry, D.L., Grillo, F.F., Cardil, A., & Stephens, S.L. (2016). Fire history and management of Pinus canariensis forests on the western Canary Islands Archipelago, Spain, Forest Ecology and Management, 382, 184–192.

Boisramé, G., Thompson, S., Collins, B., & Stephens, S. (2016). Managed Wildfire Effects on Forest Resilience and Water in the Sierra Nevada. Ecosystems. PDF

Seidl, R., T.A. Spies, D.L. Peterson, S.L. Stephens, and J.A. Hicke. 2016. Searching for resilience: addressing the impacts of changing disturbance regimes on forest ecosystem services. Journal of Applied Ecology 53:120-129. PDF

Dow, C.B., B.M. Collins, and S. L. Stephens. 2016. Incorporating resource protection constraints in an analysis of landscape fuel treatment effectiveness in the northern Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. Environmental Management 57: 516-530. PDF

Hessburg, P.F., T. A. Spies, D. A. Perry, C. N. Skinner, A. H. Taylor, P. M. Brown, S. L. Stephens, A. J. Larson, D. J. Churchill, N. A. Povak, P. H. Singleton, B. McComb, W. J. Zielinski, B. M. Collins, R. B. Salter, J. J. Keane, J. F. Franklin, and G. Riegel. 2016. Tamm Review: Management of mixed-severity fire regime forests in Oregon, Washington, and Northern California. Forest Ecology and Management 366: 221–250.

Wilkin, K., D. Ackerly, and S. Stephens. 2016. Climate Change Refugia, Fire Ecology and Management. Forests 7: 77. PDF

Dore, S. D. L. Fry, B. M. Collins, R. Vargas, R. A. York, and S. L. Stephens. 2016. Management Impacts on Carbon Dynamics in a Sierra Nevada Mixed Conifer Forest. PLoS One 9(2): e0150256. PDF

Lydersen, J. M., Collins, B. M., Miller, J. D., Fry, D. L., & Stephens, S. L. (2016). Relating fire-caused change in forest structure to remotely sensed estimates of fire severity. Fire Ecology, 12(3), 99–116. PDF


North, M.P., S.L. Stephens, B.M. Collins , J.K. Agee, G. Aplet, J.F. Franklin, and P.Z. Fulé. 2015. Reform forest fire management: Agency incentives undermine policy effectiveness. Science 18: 1280-1281. PDF

Tempel, D.J., R.J. Gutierrez, J.J. Battles, D.L. Fry, Y. Su, Q. Guo, M.J. Reetz, S.A Whitmore, G.M. Jones, B.M. Collins, S.L. Stephens, M. Kelly, W.J. Berigan, and M. Z. Peery. 2015. Evaluating short- and long-term impacts of fuels treatments and simulated wildfire on an old-forest species. Ecosphere 6(12): art261. PDF

Hessburg, P.F., Churchill, D.J., Larson, A.J., Haugo, R.D., Miller, C., Spies, T.A., North, M.P, Povak, N.A., Belote, R.T., Singleton, P.H., Gaines, W.L., Keane, R.E., Aplet, G.H., Stephens, S.L., Morgan, P., Bisson, P.A., Rieman, B.E., Salter, R.B., Reeves, G.H. 2015. Restoring fire-prone Inland Pacific landscapes: seven core principles. Landscape Ecology DOI 10.1007/s10980-015-0218-0. PDF

Forrestel, A.B., B.S. Ramage, T. Moody, M.A. Moritz, S.L. Stephens. 2015. Disease, fuels and potential fire behavior: Impacts of sudden oak death in two coastal California forest types. Forest Ecology and Management 348: 23–30.

Lydersen, J.M., B.M. Collins, E.E. Knapp, G.B. Roller, and S. Stephens. 2015. Relating fuel loads to overstory structure and composition in a fire-excluded Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest. International Journal of Wildland Fire 24: 484-494. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Lydersen, J.M., Collins, B.M., Fry, D.L., Meyer, M.D. 2015. Historical and current landscape-scale ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forest structure in the Southern Sierra Nevada. Ecosphere 6(5) art 79. PDF

Collins, B.M., Lydersen, J.M., Everett, R.G., Fry, D.L., Stephens, S.L. 2015. Novel characterization of landscape-level variability in historical vegetation structure. Ecological Applications 25: 1167-1174. PDF

Stephens, S., M. North, and B. Collins. 2015. Large wildfires in forests: what can be done? Action Bioscience. PDF

Krasnow, K.D. and S.L. Stephens. 2015. Evolving paradigms of aspen ecology and management: impacts of stand condition and fire severity on vegetation dynamics. Ecosphere 6(1): art12. PDF


Stephens, S.L., S.W. Bigelow, R.D. Burnett, B.M. Collins, C.V. Gallagher, J. Keane, D.A. Kelt, M.P. North, L.J. Roberts, P.A. Stine, and D.H. Van Vuren. 2014. California spotted owl, songbird, and small mammal responses to landscape fuel treatments. Bioscience 64: 893-906. PDF

Collins, B.M., Das, A.J., Battles, J.J., Fry, D.L., Krasnow, K.D., Stephens, S.L. 2014. Beyond reducing fire hazard: fuel treatment impacts on overstory tree survival. Ecol. Appl. 24: 1879–1886. PDF

Dore, S., D.L. Fry, S.L. Stephens. 2014. Spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 efflux after harvest and prescribed fire in a California mixed conifer forest. Forest Ecology and Management 319: 150-160.

Fry, D.L., S.L. Stephens, B.M. Collins, M.P. North, E. Franco-Vizcaino, and S.J. Gill. 2014. Contrasting Spatial Patterns in Active-Fire and Fire-Suppressed Mediterranean Climate Old-Growth Mixed Conifer Forests. PLOS ONE 9(2): e88985. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088985. PDF

Kramer, H.A., Collins, B.M., Kelly, M., Stephens, S.L. 2014. Quantifying ladder fuels: A new approach using LiDAR. Forests 5(6):1432-1453. (doi: 10.3390/f5061432) PDF

Stephens, S.L. 2014. Increasing resiliency in frequent fire forests: Lessons from the Sierra Nevada and western Australia. USDA RMRS General Technical Report-71. pp.123-132. PDF

Stephens, S.L., N. Burrows, A. Buyantuyev, R.W. Gray, R.E. Keane, R. Kubian, S. Liu, F. Seijo, L. Shu, K.G. Tolhurst, and J.W. van Wagtendonk. 2014. Temperate and boreal forest mega-fires: characteristics and challenges. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12(2):115-122. (doi: 10.1890/120332) PDF


Barros, A.M.G., J.M.C. Pereira, M.A. Moritz, and S.L. Stephens. 2013. Spatial Characterization of Wildfire Orientation Patterns in California. Forests (4):197-217. (doi: 10.3390/f4010197) PDF

Bell, Moritz, and Stephens. 2013. Short-term physiological effects of smoke on grapevine leaves. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22(7):933-946. (doi: 10.1071/WF12140) PDF

Collins, B.M., H.A. Kramer, K. Menning, C. Dillingham, D. Saah, P.A. Stine, and S.L. Stephens. 2013. Modeling hazardous fire potential within a completed fuel treatment network in the northern Sierra Nevada. Forest Ecology and Management 310:156–166.

Fulé, P.Z., T.W. Swetnam, P.M. Brown, D.A. Falk, D.L. Peterson, C.D. Allen, G.H. Aplet, M.A. Battaglia, D. Binkley, C. Farris, R.E. Keane, E.Q. Margolis, H. Grissino-Mayer, C. Miller, C.H. Sieg, C. Skinner, S.L. Stephens, and A. Taylor. 2013. Unsupported inferences of high severity fire in historical western United States dry forests: Response to Williams and Baker. Global Ecology and Biogeography. (doi: 10.1111/geb.12136) PDF

Fry, D.L., and S.L. Stephens. 2013. Seed viability and female cone characteristics of mature knobcone pine trees. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 28(1):46-48. (doi: 10.5849/wjaf.11-046) PDF

Gill, A.M., S.L. Stephens, and G.J. Carry. 2013. The world-wide “wildfire” problem. Ecological Applications 23(2):438-454. (doi: 10.1890/10-2213.1) PDF

Jakubowski, M., Q. Guo, B. Collins, S. Stephens, and M. Kelly. 2013. Predicting surface fuel models and fuel metrics using lidar and CIR imagery in a dense, mountainous forest. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 79(1):37-49. PDF

Pennypacker, C.R., M.K. Jakubowski, M. Kelly, M. Lampton, C. Schmidt, S. Stephens, and R. Tripp. 2013. FUEGO—Fire Urgency Estimator in Geosynchronous Orbit—A proposed early-warning fire detection system. Remote Sensing 5(10):5173-5192. (doi: 10.3390/rs5105173) PDF

Sneeuwjagt, R.J., T.S. Kline, and S.L. Stephens. 2013. Opportunities for improved fire use and management in California: lessons from Western Australia. Fire Ecology 9(2): 14-25. (doi: 10.4996/fireecology.0902014) PDF

Stark, D.L., D.L. Wood, A.J. Storer, and S.L. Stephens. 2013. Prescribed fire and mechanical thinning effects on bark beetle caused tree mortality in a mid-elevation Sierran mixed-conifer forest. Forest Ecology and Management 306:61-67. (doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.06.018)

Stephens, S.L., J.K. Agee, P.Z Fulé, M.P. North, W.H. Romme, T.W. Swetnam, and M.G. Turner. 2013. Managing forests and fire in changing climates. Science 342:41-42. (doi: 10.1126/science.1240294) PDF


Chiono, L.A., K.L. O’Hara, M.J. De Lasaux, G.A. Nader, and S.L. Stephens. 2012. Development of vegetation and surface fuels following fire hazard reduction treatment. Forests 2012 3:700-722. (doi:10.3390/f3030700) PDF

Collins, B.M., and S.L. Stephens. 2012. Fire and Fuels Reduction. In: North, M. (ed). Managing Sierra Nevada Forests. USDA Forest Service, PSW General Technical Report. PSW-GTR-237. Pp. 1-12. PDF

Fry, D.L., J. Dawson, and S.L. Stephens. 2012. Age and structure of mature knobcone pine forests in the northern California Coast Range, USA. Fire Ecology 8(1): 49-62. doi: 10.4996/fireecology.0801049. PDF

Gibbons, P., L. van Bomme, A.M. Gill, G.J. Cary, D.A. Driscoll, R.A. Bradstock, E. Knight, M.A. Moritz, S.L. Stephens, and D.B. Lindenmayer. 2012. Land management practices associated with house loss in wildfires. PLoS ONE 7(1):e29212. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029212. PDF

Krasnow, K.D., A.S. Halford, and S.L. Stephens. Aspen restoration in the eastern Sierra Nevada: effectiveness of prescribed fire and conifer removal. Fire Ecology 8(3):104-118. doi: 10.4996/fireecology.0803104. PDF

McIver, J., S. Stephens, J. Agee, J. Barbour, R. Boerner, C. Edminster, K. Erickson, K. Farris, C. Fettig, C. Fiedler, S. Haase, S. Hart, J. Keeley, E. Knapp, J. Lehmkuhl, J. Moghaddas, W. Otrosina, K. Outcalt, D. Schwilk, C. Skinner, T. Waldrop, P. Weatherspoon, D. Yaussy, A. Youngblood, and S. Zack. Ecological effects of alternative fuel reduction treatments: highlights of the U.S. Fire and Fire Surrogate study (FFS). International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2012. PDF

Miller, J.D., B.M. Collins, J.A. Lutz, S.L. Stephens, J.W. van Wagtendonk, and D.A. Yasuda. 2012. Differences in wildfires among ecoregions and land management agencies in the Sierra Nevada region, California, USA. Ecosphere 3(9): art80. PDF

North, M.P., B.M. Collins, and S.L. Stephens. 2012. Using fire to increase the scale, benefits and future maintenance of fuels treatments. Journal of Forestry 110(7):392-401. PDF

Stephens, S.L., B.M. Collins, and G. Roller. 2012. Fuel treatment longevity in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest. Forest Ecology and Management 285:204-212.

Stephens, S.L., J.D. McIver, R.E.J. Boerner, C.J. Fettig, J.B. Fontaine, B.R. Hartsough, P. Kennedy, and D.W. Schwilk. 2012. Effects of forest fuel reduction treatments in the United States. BioScience 62:549-560. PDF

Stephens, S.L., R.E.J. Boerner, J.J. Moghaddas, E.E.Y. Moghaddas, B.M. Collins, C.B. Dow, C. Edminster, C.E. Fiedler, D.L. Fry, B. R. Hartsough, J.E. Keeley, E.E. Knapp, J.D. McIver, C.N. Skinner, and A. Youngblood. 2012. Fuel treatment impacts on estimated wildfire carbon loss from forests in Montana, Oregon, California, and Arizona. Ecosphere 3(5):38. PDF


Collins, B.M., R.G. Everett, and S.L. Stephens. 2011. Impacts of fire exclusion and recent managed fire on forest structure in old growth Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. Ecosphere 2(4):art51. PDF

Collins, B.M., S.L. Stephens, G.B. Roller, and J.J. Battles. 2011. Simulating fire and forest dynamics for a landscape fuel treatment project in the Sierra Nevada. Forest Science 57:77-88. PDF

Evans, A.M., R.G. Everett, S.L. Stephens, and J.A. Youtz. 2011. Comprehensive fuels treatment practices guide for mixed conifer forests: California, Central and Southern Rockies, and the Southwest. US Forest Service Forest Guild. PDF

Perry, D.A., P.F. Hessburg, C.N. Skinner, T.A. Spies, S.L. Stephens, A.H. Taylor, J.F. Franklin, B. McComb, G. Riegel. 2011. The ecology of mixed severity fire regimes in Washington, Oregon, and Northern California. Forest Ecology and Management 262:703-717.

Spies, T. A., D.B. Lindenmayer, A.M. Gill, S.L. Stephens, and J.K. Agee. 2011. Challenges and a checklist for biodiversity conservation in fire-prone forests: Perspectives from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Southeastern Australia. Biological Conservation 145:5-14. PDF

Forrestel, A.B., M.A. Moritz, and S.L. Stephens. 2011. Landscape-scale vegetation change following fire in Point Reyes, California, USA. Fire Ecology 7(2):114-128. PDF


Collins, B.M., and S.L. Stephens. 2010. Stand-replacing patches within a mixed severity fire regime: quantitative characterization using recent
fires in a long-established natural fire area. Landscape Ecology 25:927939. PDF

Collins, B.M., S.L. Stephens, J.M. Moghaddas, and J. Battles. 2010. Challenges and approaches in planning fuel treatments across fire-excluded forested
landscapes. Journal of Forestry 108: 24-31. PDF

Fry, D.L., and S.L. Stephens. 2010. Stand-level spatial dependence in an old-growth Jeffrey pine – mixed conifer forest, Sierra San Pedro Martir,
Mexico. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40:1830-1814. PDF

McGinnis, T.W., J.E. Keeley, S.L. Stephens, and G.B. Roller. 2010. Fuel buildup and potential fire behavior after stand-replacing fires, logging fire-killed
trees and herbicide shrub removal in Sierra Nevada forests. Forest Ecology and Management  260:22-35

Moghaddas, J.J., B.M. Collins, K. Menning, E.E.Y. Moghaddas, and S.L. Stephens. 2010. Fuel treatment effects on modeled landscape-level fire
behavior in the northern Sierra Nevada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40:1751-1765. PDF

Mutch, R.W. M.J. Rogers, S.L. Stephens, and A.M. Gill. 2010. Protecting lives and property in the wildland urban interface: Communities in Montana
and Southern California adopt Australian paradigm. Fire Technology DOI: 10.1007/s10694-010-0171-z. PDF

Potts, J.B., E. Marino, and S.L. Stephens. 2010. Chaparral shrub recovery after fuel reduction: A comparison of prescribed fire and mastication techniques.
Plant Ecology PDF

Stephens, S.L., D.L. Fry, B.M. Collins, C.N. Skinner, E. Franco-Vizcaino, and T. J. Freed. 2010. Fire-scar formation in Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer
forests in the Sierra San Pedro Mrtir, Mexico. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40:1497-1505. PDF

Stephens. S.L., C.I. Millar, and B.M. Collins. 2010. Operational approaches to managing forests of the future in Mediterranean regions within a context
of changing climates. Environmental Research Letters 5: 024003. PDF

Trouet, V., A.H. Taylor, E.R. Wahl, C.N. Skinner, and S.L. Stephens. 2010. Fire-climate interactions in the American West since 1400 CE. Geophysical Research Letters 37: doi:10.1029/2009GL041695 PDF

Weise, D.R., S.L. Stephens, F.M. Fujioka, T.J. Moody, and J. Benoit. 2010.  Estimation of fire danger in Hawaii using limited weather data and simulation.  Pacific Science 64: 99-220. PDF

York, R. A., Fuchs, D., Battles, J. J., & Stephens, S. L. (2010). Radial growth responses to gap creation in large, old Sequoiadendron giganteum. Applied Vegetation Science, 13(4), 498–509. PDF


Skinner, C.N., C.S. Abbott, D.L. Fry, S.L. Stephens, A.H. Taylor, and V. Trouet. 2009. Human and climatic influences on fire occurrence in California’s North Coast Range, USA. Fire Ecology. PDF

Vaillant, N.M. and S. L. Stephens. 2009. Fire history of a lower elevation Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest. Fire Ecology. PDF

North, M., K. Van de Water, S.L. Stephens, and B. Collins. 2009. Climate, rain shadow, and human-use influences on Eastern Sierra Nevada fire regimes. Fire Ecology. PDF

Gill, A.M., and S.L. Stephens. 2009. Scientific and social challenges for the management of fire-prone wildland-urban interfaces. Environmental Research Letters 4 034014 PDF

Padgett, K.A., S.L. Stephens, and B. Lane. 2009. Effect of prescribed fire for tick control in California chaparral. Journal of Medical Entomology.  J. Med. Entomol. 46(5): 1138Ð1145. PDF

Stephens,  S.L., J. Moghaddas, B. Hartsough, E. Moghaddas, and N. E. Clinton. 2009. Fuel treatment effects on stand level carbon pools, treatment related emissions, and fire risk in a Sierran mixed conifer forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  39: 1538-1547. PDF

Vaillant, N. M., J. Fire-Kaufman, and S. L. Stephens .  2009.  Effectiveness of prescribed fire as a fuel treatment in Californian coniferous forests.  International Journal of Wildland Fire, 18:165-175. PDF

North, M. P. Stine, K. O’Hara, W. Zielinski, and S. Stephens.  2009.  An Ecosystems Management Strategy for Sierra Mixed-Conifer Forests.  US Dept. Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station.  General Technical Report PSW-GTR-220 w/ addendum.  52 pages. PDF

Potts, J. B., S. L. Stephens.  2009.  Invasive and native plant responses to shrubland fuel reduction: comparing prescribed fire, mastication, and treatment season.  Biological Conservation 142: 1657-1654 PDF

Stephens, S.L., J.J. Moghaddas, C. Ediminster, C.E. Fiedler, S. Hasse, M.Harrington, J.E. Keeley, J.D. McIver, K. Metlen, C.N. Skinner, and A.Youngblood. 2009. Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western U.S. forests.   Ecological Applications 19: 305-320. PDF

McIver, J., A. Youngblood, and S.L. Stephens. 2009. The national Fire and Fire Surrogate study: ecological consequences of fuel reduction methods in seasonally dry forests.  Ecological Applications 19: 283-284. PDF

Schwilk, D.W., J.E. Keeley, E.E. Knapp, J. McIver, J.D. Bailey, C.J.Fettig, C.E. Fiedler, R.J. Harrod, J.J. Moghaddas, K.W. Outcalt, C.N.Skinner, S.L. Stephens, T.A. Waldrop, D.A. Yaussy, and A. Youngblood.  2009. The national Fire and Fire Surrogate study: effects of fuel reduction methods on forest vegetation structure and fuels. Ecological Applications 19: 285-304. PDF

Stephens S. L.,  M. Adams, J. Hadmer. F. Kearns, B. Leicester, J. Leonard, M. Moritz.  2009.  Urban-wildland fires: how California and other regions of the US can learn from Australia Environmental Research Letters 4  014010 PDF

Kobziar, L.N., S.L. Stephens, and J.R. McBride. 2009. The efficacy of fuels reduction treatments in a Sierra Nevada pine plantation.  International Journal of Wildland Fire  18, 791–801. PDF

Collins BM, Miller JD, Thode AE, Kelly M, van Wagtendonk JW, Stephens SL.  2009. Interactions among wildland fires in a long-established Sierra Nevada natural fire area. Ecosystems 12: 114-128. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-008-9211-7. PDF


Fry D. 2008. Prescribed fire effects on deciduous oak woodland stand structure, northern Diablo Range, California. Rangeland Ecology and Management. 61(3): 294-301. DOI: PDF

Stephens, S.L., Weise, D.R., Fry, D.L., Keiffer, R.J., Dawson, J., Koo, E., Potts, J., and Pagni, P. 2008. Measuring the rate of spread of chaparral prescribed fires in northern California. Fire Ecology 4: 74-86. PDF

Stephens S.L, Fry D, Franco-Vizcano E. 2008. Wildfire and forests in Northwestern Mexico: the United States wishes it had similar fire ‘problems’. Ecology and Society. 13(2): 10 PDF

Everett, R.G.  2008.  Dendrochronology-based Fire History of Mixed Conifer Forests in the San Jacinto Mountains, California.  Forest Ecology and Management.  256 (2008) 1805-1814.

Amacher, A.J., R.H. Barrett, J.J. Moghaddas, and S.L. Stephens. 2008.  Preliminary effects of fire and mechanical fuel treatments on the  abundance of small mammals in the mixed-conifer forest of the Sierra Nevada.  Forest Ecology and Management 255: 3193-3202

Moghaddas, E.E.Y., and S.L. Stephens. 2008. Mechanized fuel treatment effects on soil compaction in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer stands.  Forest Ecology and Management 255: 3098-3106.

Moghaddas, J.J., R.A. York, and S.L. Stephens. 2008. Initial response of conifer and California black oak seedlings following fuel reduction activities in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest. Forest Ecology and Management 255: 3141-3150.

Skinner, C.N., J.H. Burk, M. Barbour, E. Franco-Vizcaino, and S.L. Stephens. 2008. Long-term influences of climate on fire regimes in montane forests of northwestern Mexico. Journal of Biogeography 35(8):1436-1451. PDF

Hartsough, B.R., S. Abrams, R.J. Barbour, E.S. Drews, J.D. McIver, J.J. Moghaddas, D.W. Schwilk, and S.L. Stephens. 2008. The economics of alternative fuel reduction treatments in western United States dry forests: financial and policy implications from the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study. Forest Economics and Policy.  10:344-354  PDF

McCaffery, S., J.J. Moghaddas, and S.L. Stephens. 2008. Survey results from fire and fire surrogate fuel treatments in a Sierran mixed conifer forest, California, USA. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 17: 224-233 PDF

Collins, B.M., and S.L. Stephens. 2008. Tree scarring patterns in Sierra Nevada wilderness areas burned by multiple wildland fire use fires. Fire Ecology 3(2): 53-67. PDF

Moritz, M.A., and S.L. Stephens. 2008. Fire and sustainability: considerations for California’s altered future climate. Climatic Change 87 (Suppl 1):S265–S271. PDF

Fried, J.S., Gilles, J.K., Riley, W.J., Moody, T.J., de Blas, C.S., K. Hayhoe, M. Moritz, S.L. Stephens, and M. Torn. 2008. Predicting the effect of climate change on wildfire behavior and initial attack success Climatic Change 87 (Suppl 1):S251–S264. PDF


Collins, B.M. and S.L. Stephens.  2007.  Managing Natural Fires in Sierra Nevada Wilderness Areas.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5(10): 523-52 PDF

Millar, C.I., N.L. Stephenson, and S.L. Stephens.  2007.  Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty.  Ecological Applications 17(8): 2145-2151. PDF

Stephens, S.L., R.E. Martin, and N.E. Clinton.  2007.  Prehistoric fire area and emissions from California’s forests, woodlands, shrublands and grasslands.  Forest Ecology and Management 251:205-216.

Kaufmann, M. R., D. Binkley, P. Z. Fulé, M. Johnson, S. L. Stephens, and T. W. Swetnam.  2007. Defining old growth for fire-adapted forests of the western United States. Ecology and Society 12(2): 15. PDF

Youngblood, A., H. Bigler-Cole, C.J. Fettig, C. Fiedler, E. E. Knapp, J.L. Lehmkuhl,  K.W. Outcalt, C.N. Skinner, S.L. Stephens, and T.H. Waldrop.  2007. Making Fire and Fire Surrogate Science Available: A Summary of Regional Workshops With Clients.  Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station General Technical Report PNW-GTR-727. PDF

Moghaddas, E. and S. L. Stephens.  2007.  Thinning, burning, and thin-burn fuel treatment effects on soil properties in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest.  Forest Ecology and Management.  250:156-166.

Collins, B.M., N. K. Kelly,, J.W. van Wagtendonk, and S.L. Stephens. 2007. Spatial patterns of large natural fires in Sierra Nevada wilderness areas. Landscape Ecology 22:545-557. PDF

Stephens, S.L., and Collins, B.M. 2007. Fire policy in the urban-wildland interface in the United States: What are the issues and possible solutions? In: Living on the edge: economics, institutional and management perspectives on wildfire hazards in the urban interface. Advances in the Economics of Environmental Resources, Vol. 6. Elsevier Ltd. PDF

Evett, R., Franco-Vizcaino, E., and Stephens, S.L. 2007. Comparing modern and past fire regimes to assess changes in prehistoric lightning and anthropogenic ignitions in a Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Mexico. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37: 318-330. PDF

Menning, K.M., and Stephens, S.L.  2007. Fire climbing in the forest: a semi-qualitative, semi-quantitative approach to assessing ladder fuel hazards. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 22(2): 88-93. PDF

Evett, R., Franco-Vizcaino, E., and Stephens, S.L. 2007.  Phytolith evidence for the absence of a prehistoric grass understory in a Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Mexico. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37:306-317. PDF

Schmidt, L., Hille, M.G., and Stephens, S.L., 2007. Restoring northern Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest composition and structure with prescribed fire. Fire Ecology 2(2):204-217. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Fry, D. L., Franco-Vizcaino, E., Collins, B.M., and Moghaddas, J.J. 2007. Coarse woody debris and canopy cover in an old-growth Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest from the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 240: 87-95.

Collins, B. M., Moghaddas, J. J., and Stephens, S. L. 2007. Initial changes in forest structure and understory plant community following fuel reduction activities in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest. Forest Ecology and Management 239: 102-111.

Kobziar, L., Moghaddas, J. J., and Stephens, S. L. 2007. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fires in a mixed conifer forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36:3222-3228. PDF


Apigian, K., D. Dahlsten, and S.L. Stephens. 2006. Biodiversity of Coleoptera and the importance of habitat structural features in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest. Environmental Entomology 35: 964-975. PDF

Kobziar, L., and Stephens, S. L. 2006. The effects of fuels treatments on soil carbon respiration in a Sierra Nevada pine plantation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 141: 161-178.

Moody, T.J., Fites-Kaufman, J., and Stephens, S.L. 2006. Fire history and climate influences from forests in the northern Sierra Nevada, USA. Fire Ecology 2: 115-141. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Sugihara, N.G., 2006. Fire management and policy since European settlement. Sugihara, NG, van Wagtendonk, J, Shaffer, KE , Fites-Kaufman, J, , Thode, AE, editors. Fire in California’s ecosystems. California: University of California Press. Berkeley. Pp. 431-443. PDF

Husari, S., Nichols, T., Sugihara, N.G. Stephens, S.L., 2006. Fuel management. Sugihara, NG, van Wagtendonk, J, Shaffer, KE , Fites-Kaufman, J, , Thode, AE, editors. Fire in California’s ecosystems. California: University of California Press. Berkeley. Pp. 444-465. PDF

Stuart, J., Stephens, S.L., 2006. North coast California bioregion. Sugihara, NG, van Wagtendonk, J, Shaffer, KE , Fites-Kaufman, J, , Thode, AE, editors. Fire in California’s ecosystems. California: University of California Press. Berkeley. Pp. 147-169. PDF

Stephens, S.L., and W.J. Libby. 2006. Anthropogenic fire and bark thickness in coastal and island pine populations from Alta and Baja California. Journal of Biogeography 33: 648-652. (See Erratum on next line for a corrected Figure 1PDF

Stephens, S.L., and W.J. Libby. 2006. ERRATUM FOR: Anthropogenic fire and bark thickness in coastal and island pine populations from Alta and Baja California. Journal of Biogeography 33: 760. PDF

Fry, D.L., and S.L. Stephens. 2006. Influence of humans and climate on the fire history of a Ponderosa pine-mixed conifer forest in the southeastern Klamath Mountains, California. Forest Ecology and Management. 223: 428-438.

Apigian, K., D. Dahlsten, and S.L. Stephens. 2006. Fire and fire surrogate treatment effects on leaf litter arthropods in a western Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest. Forest Ecology and Management 221:110-122.


Stephens, S.L., and P.Z. Fule. 2005. Western pine forests with continuing frequent fire regimes: Possible reference sites for management. Journal of Forestry 103(7): 357-362. PDF

Stephens, S.L., and D. R. Fry. 2005. Spatial distribution of regeneration patches in an old-growth Pinus jeffreyi-mixed conifer forest in northwestern Mexico. Journal of Vegetation Science 16:693-702. PDF

Beche, L.A., S.L. Stephens, and V.H. Resh. 2005. Prescribed fire effects on a riparian and stream community in the Sierra Nevada: Dark Canyon Creek, California, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 218:37-59

Stephens, S.L. and J.J. Moghaddas. 2005. Silvicultural and reserve impacts on potential fire behavior and forest conservation: 25 years of experience from Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests. Biological Conservation  25:369-379. PDF

Stephens, S.L. and J.J. Moghaddas. 2005. Fuel treatment effects on snags and coarse woody debris in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest. Forest Ecology and Management 214:53-64.

Stephens, S.L. and J.J. Moghaddas. 2005. Experimental fuel treatment impacts on forest structure, potential fire behavior, and predicted tree mortality in a mixed conifer forest. Forest Ecology and Management 215:21-36.

Hille, M.G., and S.L. Stephens. 2005. Mixed conifer forest duff consumption during prescribed fires: tree crown impacts. Forest Science 51(5): 417-424. PDF

Stephens, S.L. 2005. Forest fire causes and extent on United States Forest Service Lands. International Journal of Wildland Fire 14(213-222. PDF

Youngblood, A., K.L. Metlen, E. Knapp, K.W. Outcalt, S.L. Stephens, T.A. Waldrop, and D. Yaussy. 2005. Implementation of the Fire and Fire Surrogate Study ­A national research effort to evaluate the consequences of fuel reduction treatments.  In: Peterson, C.E., and Maguire, D.A. (eds). Balancing ecosystem values: innovative experiments for sustainable forestry. USFS Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-635. Portland, OR. Pp. 315-323. PDF

Purcell, K., and S.L. Stephens. 2005. Changing fire regimes and the avifauna of California oak woodlands. Studies in Avian Biology. 30:33-45  PDF

Purcell, K., and S.L. Stephens. 2005. Natural and anthropogenic fire regimes, vegetation effects, and potential impacts on the avifauna of California’s oak woodlands. USFS General Technical Report PSW-191 PDF

Stephens, S.L., & D.L. Fry. 2005. Fire history in coast redwood stands in the Northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains, California. Fire Ecology 1(1):2-19. PDF

Stephens, S.L. and Gill, S.J.  2005.  Forest structure and mortality in an old-growth Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest in northwestern Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management. 205:15-28.

Stephens, S.L. and Ruth, L.W. 2005. Federal forest fire policy in the United States. Ecological Applications, 15(2):532-542  PDF


Knapp, E.E., S.L. Stephens, J.D. McIver, J.J. Moghaddas, and J.E. Keeley. 2004. The Fire and Fire Surrogate Study in the Sierra Nevada: Evaluating restoration treatments at Blodgett Experimental Forest and Sequoia National Park. In: Murphy, D.D., and Stine, P.A. (eds.), Proceedings of the Sierra Nevada Science Symposium, Tahoe City, CA. USFS PSW General Technical Report PSW-GTR-193. pp. 79-85. PDF

Skinner, C.N., and S.L. Stephens. 2004. Fire in the Sierra Nevada. Proceedings of the Sierra Nevada Science Symposium, Tahoe City, CA. USFS PSW General Technical Report. PSW-GTR-193. pp. 65-68. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Piirto, D.D., and D.F. Caramagno, 2004. Fire regimes and resultant forest structure in the native Ano Nuevo Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) forest, California. American Midlland Naturalist 152: 25-36. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Finney, M.A., and Schantz, H. 2004. Bulk density and fuel loads of ponderosa pine and white fir forest floors: impacts of leaf morphology. Northwest Science 78: 93-100. PDF

Stephens, S.L. 2004. Fuel loads, snag density, and snag recruitment in an unmanaged Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest in northwestern Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 199: 103-113.

Stephens, S.L. and Collins, B.M. 2004. Fire regimes of mixed conifer forests in the north-central Sierra Nevada at multiple spatial scales. Northwest Science 78: 12-23. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Meixner, T., Poth, M., McGurk, B, Payne, D. 2004. Prescribed fire, soils, and stream water chemistry in a watershed in the Lake Tahoe Basin. International Journal of Wildland Fire 13: 27-35. PDF

2000 – 2003:

Stephens, S.L., Skinner, C.N., Gill, S.J., 2003. Dendrochronology-based fire history of Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Mexico. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33:1090-1101. PDF

Stephens, S.L., and M.A. Finney, 2002. Prescribed Fire Mortality of Sierra Nevada Mixed Conifer Tree Species: Effects of Crown Damage and Forest Floor Combustion. Forest Ecology and Management 162: 261-271.

Stephens, S.L. 2001, Fire History of Adjacent Jeffrey pine and Upper Montane Forests in the Eastern Sierra Nevada. International Journal of Wildland Fire 10:161-176. PDF

Stephens, S.L. 2000. Mixed Conifer and Upper Montane Forest Structure and Uses in 1899 from the Central and Northern Sierra Nevada, CA. Madrono, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 43-52.  PDF

1993 – 1999:

Stephens, S.L, D. Dulitz, and R.E. Martin, 1999.  Giant Sequoia Regeneration in Group Selection Openings in the Southern Sierra Nevada. Forest Ecology and Management vol. 120, no. 1-3,  pp. 89-95.

Stephens, S.L., and D.L. Elliott-Fisk. 1998. Sequoiadendron giganteum-Mixed Conifer Forest Structure in 1900-1901 from the Southern Sierra Nevada, CA.  Madrono,  45:221-230. PDF

Stephens, S.L. 1998.  Evaluation of the effects of silvicultural and fuels treatments on potential fire behaviour in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests.  Forest Ecology and Management 105, no. 1-3,  pp.21-34.

Stephens, S.L. 1997. Fire History of a Mixed Oak-Pine Forest in the Foothills of the Sierra  Nevada, El Dorado County, California.  Symposium on Oak Woodlands: Ecology,  Management, and Urban Interface Issues. USDA Forest Service General Technical  Report-PSW GTR-160, pp 191-198. PDF

Elliott-Fisk, D.L, S.L. Stephens, J.A. Aubert, D. Murphy, J. Schaber. 1996. Mediated Settlement Agreement for Sequoia National Forest- Giant Sequoia Groves, an  Evaluation. Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project.  Addendum (Davis: University of California, Centers for Water and Wildland Resources). pp. 277-328. PDF

Elliott-Fisk, D.L, T.C. Cahill, O.K. Davis, L. Duan, C.R. Goldman, G.E. Gruell, R. Harris, R. Kattelmann, R. Lacey, D. Leisz, S. Lindstrom, D. Machida, R.A. Rowntree, P. Rucks, D.A. Sharkey, S.L. Stephens, and D.S Ziegler. 1997. Lake Tahoe case study. Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project.  Addendum (Davis: University of California, Centers for Water and Wildland Resources). pp. 217-276. PDF

Stephens, S.L., Molina D. M., Carter, R., Martin, R. E.. 1995.  Comparison of fuel load, structural characteristics, and infrastructure before and after the Oakland Hills Tunnel fire. Biswell Symposium, USDA PSW General Technical Report-158 . pp.189-191 PDF

Stephens, S.L., D. Gordon, and R.E. Martin. 1993. Combustion characteristics of domestic vegetation found in the urban/wildland interface of California.  Proceeding of the 12th International Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology, Society of American Foresters, Jekyl Island, Georgia. pp. 565-571. PDF