Spiders, Beetles, Planthoppers & Flies:

Expedition to Austral Islands

Text Box:

March 2002

 

R.G. Gillespie

G.K. Roderick

E. Claridge

J. Garb

 

University of California,

Berkeley,

CA 94720, USA

 

                    

 

Objectives

 

Text Box: Figure 1. Map of French Polynesia The objective of the expedition to the Austral Islands was to determine the nature and diversity of the spider, planthoppper and beetle fauna of southern French Polynesia, and identify possible threats. Over the last 15 years we have been studying the extensive radiations of the spider genera Tetragnatha, Theridion, and a few other groups including the beetle genus Rhyncogonus, and the planthopper genus Nesosydne, in the Hawaiian Islands. Over the last 3 years we have extended this research to examine similar groups in the French Polynesian islands of the Societies and Marquesas. Our intention is to generate phylogenetic (or genealogical) patterns of relationship for different groups of spiders, beetles and planthoppers in French Polynesia using morphological and various molecular approaches. Using this information, we can examine (i) levels of endemism and associated patterns of species formation, including information on ecological and behavioral attributes. And (ii) representation by groups that are of relatively recent origin in the islands. Through (i) and (ii) we hope to be able to identify hotspots of endemism as well as issues of conservation concern.

 

We planned to: (1) Assess species identities, numbers of species, distributions, and abundance for the different groups in the islands. And (2) for species that are not endemic, preliminary assessment of the recency of arrival based on molecular information.

 

Background

 

The Austral Islands include the high islands of Rurutu, Tubuai, Rimatara, and Raivavae plus the low, and the uninhabited islands of Maria (or Hull). The land surface in the Austral Islands is approx.100 square.km   Rapa is the southernmost island in French Polynesia, considered to be in the ÒAustralÓ group of islands, but is actually geographically and geologically separate from the islands mentioned above. Its own archipelago consists of Neilson (or Lancaster) reef to the northwest, and the Marotiri (or Bass) Rocks (85km) and MacDonald (435km, active hotspot) to the southeast. Rapa is 5myrs old (Jarrard 1977), with the islands to the southeast progressively younger (Marotiri 3.5-4myrs old) (Barsczus 1980).

 

 

Area (sq.km)

Altitude (m)

Nearest landmass (km)

Pop.Density

 (persons/sq km)

Island

Group

Continent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raivavae

16.7

437

200

500

6000

46.1

Rurutu

24.3

390

160

500

6000

52.7

Rapa

40.0

650

500

1200

6400

NA

Each of the parameters listed is of considerable importance to the evolution of the arthropod fauna in these islands, and the conservation status. Rapa, Raivavae, and Rurutu are all high volcanic islands. The climate in Rapa is considered to be wet temperate  (rainfall 2000-3000 mm), Raivavae wet subtropical, and Rurutu subtropical. Levels of endemism have been reported as very high among certain birds, plants and arthropods, in particular on Rapa. Threats to the biodiversity are primarily a result of burning and invasive species, in particular ungulates (in Rapa, estimated 5000 feral goats, 500 cattle in 1982).

 

Rapa has 189 native species of plants including 67 endemics (35% endemism), two island endemic genera (Apostates, Metatrophis) and species belonging to 4 other endemic genera (Apetahia, Fitchia, Haroldiella, Oparanthus) (Florence 1997), In terms of arthropods, only a portion of the fauna of Rapa has been studied. The Orthoptera, much of the Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera are almost unknown, even though collections are available. The Lepidoptera are relatively well known (Clarke 1971); there are 130 species, 52% endemic. In the Coleoptera, the Curculionidae have been found to have several diverse groups (Van Dyke 1937; Zimmerman 1938; Zimmerman 1968; Paulay 1985). The adaptive radiation of the small flightless weevils in the genus Miocalles is particularly striking, as there are 67 species in this one radiation endemic to Rapa(Paulay 1985).

 

Spiders have been collected from the Austral Islands and Rapa through several expeditions over the last century. The animals collected were initially described by Berland (Berland 1934), with additional species in a second paper (Berland 1942), and a more recent study by Ledoux and HalleŽ (Ledoux 1995).  Collections of spiders are limited to Rurutu, from the expedition of the St. George, and collected in March 1925 by M. Johnson. They have a rather rich fauna, with the same level of endemism, and very closely related to the Society Islands (Berland 1934).  Spiders have also been collected from Rapa during the expedition of the St. George in April 1925 Rapa is a small island at the end of the archipelago of Tubuai, and which is southernmost of the islands.

 

  Summary of Primary Results


Relationships

The spiders of the Austral islands show some interesting patterns of diversity:

 

Endemism.

         The spider genus Paro (proposed as a junior synonym of Laetesia, G. Hormiga Pers. Comm.) (Linyphiidae) is confined to the summit area of Perahu on Rapa, where it builds flimsy sheet webs low down in the vegetation. To date, the only described species from Rapa has been P. simoni (Fig. 8). However, comparison of the male palp among the specimens collected in the current study, showed that there are only a few specimens that match the morphology of P. simoni. Others are quite distinct in plpal morphology (Fig. 9) and also coloration and leg spination. It is likely that this lineage includes hitherto unknown diversity, and this will be a topic of future research.

         Weevils of the subfamily Entiminae are diverse in Rapa, and represent a divergent and unique radiation of species (Fig. 10). The same will almost certainly be found to be true of the planthoppers (Delphacidae).

 

Non-endemic species.

         There are several spiders that are extremely widespread. This includes two of the most common and widespread of all spiders in the Austral islands, Tangaroa tahitiensis, and Misumenops rapaensis. It has been suggested by previous authors (Berland 1942; Ledoux 1995) that these species must be very dispersive. Indeed, LeDoux and HallŽ (Ledoux 1995) consider that the species of Rapa are part of an ensemble of species endemic to Polynesia and are able to maintain bonds between their populations on the various islands. They conclude that cosmopolitan species are a major and natural component of the fauna of these islands, their distribution not affected by human introduction. Two species that we have examined in this context are Tangaroa tahitiensis and Misumenops rapaensis.

Tangaroa tahitiensis. Tangaroa tahitiensis (Berland) was initially described in the genus Uloborus. Lehtinen (Lehtinen 1967) placed in the genus Tangaroa based on the eye pattern and genitalic structure. Other species in the genus Tangaroa are T. dissimilis (New Caledonia and New Hebrides) and T. beattyi (Caroline Islands) (Opell 1983). T. tahitiensis is known from throughout the Society and Austral Islands (Berland 1942), with representatives from the different populations being virtually indistinguishable. Preliminary molecular results have shown that specimens from Rapa are actually highly differentiated genetically from populations on Rurutu and Raivavae. With such large distances between lineages on the different islands, it is not clear why morphological differences have not yet been discovered, and we intend to pursue this further. However, it is clear that these spiders are native to the islands. Moreover, contrary to the statement of LeDoux & HallŽ (Ledoux 1995), it appears that the similarities between the lineages on the different islands does not mean that the spiders are migrating between islands. Rather, at least the Rapa lineage has been isolated for millions of years.

 

Misumenops rapaensis Misumenops rapaensis was first described by Berland (Berland 1934) from collections made in Rapa. As suggested by Lehtinen (Lehtinen 1993) and further elaborated upon by Ledoux and Halle (Ledoux 1995), the placement of this species in the genus Misumenops appears incorrect and probably requires taxonomic revision. The species has subsequently been documented as occurring on Raivavae, Tubuai, and Rurutu islands based on materials collected during the Mangarevan Expedition conducted by the Bishop Museum in 1934 (Berland 1942).  Ledoux and Halle (Ledoux 1995) subsequently revised Berland's original description of this species consideringspecimens collected by Halle in 1984 on Rapa.  While this species (M. rapaensis) appears widespread on multiple islands of the Austral archipelago, it is considered endemic to the archipelago and is the only known representative of the family Thomisidae known from the Austral islands.  In addition to occurring widely across the islands, M. rapaensis appears common at both low and high elevation collecting sites.  Berland (Berland 1942) concluded that across the different islands M. rapaensis was rather uniform, possessing no discernable morphological differentiation between islands.  On the current expedition, all the crab spiders (Thomisidae) collected were identified as Misumenops rapaensis, collected from the islands of Rapa, Raivavae and Rurutu totaling 43, 6, and 1 specimens respectively. We are currently investigating the relationships among specimens collected on different islands.  DNA sequences collected for specimens occurring on Rapa and Rurutu islands exhibit substantial genetic differentiation.  This preliminary result suggests that despite their lack of observable morphological differentiation, those occurring on different islands are genetically distinct and  likely represent native component of each island's terrestrial fauna.  We are currently in the process of acquiring additional data in order to comprehensively   assess the systematic relationships of these spiders across these islands and the resulting biogeographic implications.

 

Ongoing Research

 

There are 5 main areas that we are currently pursuing:

1.     Hivaoa (Tetragnathidae). Two species of this genus (both female) were described from Rapa by Berland. No further identified specimens have been collected since then. However, we may have some immature specimens from the current expedition. We will examine the type species of these spiders (at the Bishop Museum) and use molecular methods to determine the identity of these specimens. The question remains why these species are so rare, and whether they have become more rare over recent years.

2.     Paro. We plan to determine whether the genus Paro represents a radiation of sheet web spiders confined to the summit of Mt Perahu, Rapa. This work will likely be conducted in collaboration with Dr. Gustavo Hormiga at the George Washington University.

3.      Population structure of Tangaroa tahitiensis and Misumenops rapaensis. To determine whether the populations have expanded their range on the islands. These species are both extraordinarily numerous on the different islands of the Australs and Rapa. Preliminary results suggest that they are native to these islands, and represent distinct lineages. Their remarkable current abundance on the islands could still, however, reflect recent increases in numbers and range, perhaps owing to extensive habitat modification through burning and grazing (Fig. 12). We plan to use molecular methods to determine the extent of any recent increase in population size.




4.     Systematics of the weevils of the subfamily Entiminae. This large group of weevils shows high diversity and extreme endemism in the Pacific. We (Claridge) are cuerrently conducting an assessment of the patterns underlying this diversity in order to identify hotspots of biodiversity, and possible avenues of invasion.

5.     Planthoppers. Based on the likely new species found, it appears that the delphacid fauna of Rapa may be much more diverse than previously known.  Each of the unknown species appeared to be restricted to a single plant species or group.  Currently we are using molecular data to investigate the relationships among the Delphacidae of French Polynesia and elsewhere in the Pacific, and to determine how the groups may or may not be related, and the role of specific plant species in the diversification.



Itinerary

November 2002

30  s    Left Berkeley

December 2002

1    s    Arrived Tahiti; stayed at Gump station, Moorea

2    m   (Raivavae) Took 8.15am flight from Moorea to Papeete. Picked up ticket for Raivavae. Took 10.15am flight to Raivavae; arrived Raivavae 1pm. Picked up by Jean-Yves Meyer. Drove to Pension Linda & Nelson.

Text Box: Figure 2. Map of Raivavae
             Went up Taraia (just behind pension) with J-Y Meyer. Collected up to cliff face of Taraia at 200m. Forest very disturbed lower down, better higher up. For spiders, most abundant single group was Tangaroa tahitensis. Very few pholcids, tetragnathids.



3    t    (Raivavae) 7.30am, drove over to Rairua to meet Mayor. Went to Magasin for provisions. 9am took trail at back of Rairua tha goes across island: Mont Matotea/ Mont Tapioi sadde. Collected spiders (Tetragnatha, Leucauge) at crest of pass (approx 50m). Went off the main trail along ridge, but found little, so collected along main trail (almost no Tangaroa or pholcids) . Went down towards south side of island. Very close to the road (near lots of taro), found another batch of Tetragnatha (another species).

4    w   (Raivavae) 8am drove east around south of Raivavae with Jean-Francois. Collected at 180m in hibiscus/ fern ddry forest. Many Leucauge.

            Round island, past Anatonu. Collected in taro and over bay at Tehoro, west of Anatonu. Came back to pension at approx. noon.

Pahonu (Mahanatoa)

Santalum

100 m

12/4/02

20:58

6 K 433110 7361558

S23.85603 W147.65691

 

5    t     (Raivavae) 7.30 am left to go up Mt Hiro. Collected up ridge, then along crest at about 400m, and down into little forest patches on sides. Found 3 immature Tetragnatha along crest in little forest patches. Also thomisid crab spiders just off summit on way down. Numerous Tangaroa low down in vegetation.

Mt. Hiro summit

ridge top

370 m

12/5/02

20:51

6 K 433512 7361244

S23.85888 W147.65297

Mt. Hiro summit

Off ridge

347 m

12/5/02

22:20

6 K 432915 7361239

S23.85890 W147.65884

 

6    f     (Raivavae) Day off

7    s    Left 7.45am to get boat (Railleuse) to Rapa. Boat left Raivavae ~ 9am.

Text Box: Figure 3. Map of Rapa based on Paulay (1985).
).

8    s    Arrived Rapa ~ 7am. Stayed at pension in Haurei. Afternoon went up valley behind pension (Maitua) and collected through forest to back of valley by cliff (760ft, 250m). Then up on ridge (Ngapiri).

9    m   (Rapa) Went up Mt Maungaoa. Collected from ridge (350-400m) to top of mountain (~450m). Many Tangaroa Ð no tetragnathids. Worked along ridge, then back through pine trees.

Valley behind Ha'urei , cliff base

Meryta/Sophora/Macropiper

195m

12/9/02

1:54

6 J 762227 6941344

S27.62655 W144.34265

Mangaoa ridge

Apetaia/Eurya rapensis/ ferns

268 m

12/9/02

19:33

6 J 763149 6941228

S27.62742 W144.33329

Mangaoa ridge

Metrosideros

305 m

12/9/02

20:43

6 J 762975 6940977

S27.62972 W144.33499

Mangaoa ridge

Weinmannia/ Eurya /Melicope/Corokia/Pittosporum

305 m

12/9/02

22:45

6 J 762956 6940952

S27.62994 W144.33518

 

10  t     (Rapa) Went up Mt Perahu (=Perau). Set up camp on ridge below summit, approx. 580-600m. Collected around this area. Spider fauna quite different from lower down, though Tangaroa still very abundant. (Ron Englund found about 15 in a single canopy sample.) Also quite a number of jumping spiders and some small linyphiids.

Ha'urei Valley

taro wetlands

24 m

12/10/02

2:53

6 J 762877 6941706

S27.62316 W144.33615

Mt. Perau-trail

Eurya rapensis/Metrosideros

372 m

12/10/02

20:14

6 J 760102 6945104

S27.59305 W144.36497

11  w   (Rapa) In morning hiked up to summit of Perahu, then down ridge into gully on north side. No indication of any tetragnathids; Tangaroa still very abundant. Collected down to ~450m on north side of Perahu. Hiked back up ridge to camp site.

Mt. Perau - camp

Metrosideros / Corokia

580 m

12/11/02

1:07

6 J 759557 6944981

S27.59427 W144.37046

Mt. Perau - summit

Corokia/Metrosideros

650 m

12/11/02

18:32

6 J 759249 6944890

S27.59515 W144.37356

Mt. Perau -stream

Springs/small streamlet

457 m

12/11/02

22:26

6 J 759283 6945172

S27.59260 W144.37327

 

12  t     (Rapa) Collected along ridge, then hiked down Perahu. Arrived at base ~ 2.15pm. Back to Haurei.

Mt. Perau - trail

Metrosideros, Corokia, Freycinetia

550 m

12/12/02

19:30

6 J 759802 6944964

S27.59437 W144.36797

 

13  f     (Rapa) Took ride over to a stream (Tumu) at the back of O Tapui bay. Collected along stream (very low, ~ 10m) Ð lots of Tetragnatha along stream. Then collected along road on way back to Haurei. Found numerous Tangaroa (appear to be same species as those on mountain summit) in low herbage (grass and junk) by side of road. In evening collected with blacklight at water tank above Haurei village.

Tumu

Stream

2 m

12/13/02

0:28

6 J 761408 6944398

S27.59917 W144.35160

Cerdan's, Ha'urei

Yard/inside house

10 m

12/18/02

0:37

6 J 763008 6941979

S27.62068 W144.33488

Above Moerai

Taro Wetlands

1-9 m

12/20/02

2:00

5 K 669968 7516950

S22.44528 W151.34831

 

14  s    (Rapa) Took boat, first around island (from Haurei north) then west into Angeirao where we dropped off Ron Englund at a waterfall. Went farther around to cliff face at VaVai. Tetragnatha nulerous on cliff face. Collected there (sea level). Then back in boat to Pariati. Collected on stream there, then hiked up into dry forest (~200m). Collected quite a number of planthoppers and tephritids up there. Afternoon hiked down again and back to boat.

            Went round island and picked up Ron at Angairao, then over to island, Tarakoi. Island covered with molasses grass. Pauley has described it as a center for endemism but there is little vegetation left except hibiscus and molasses grass.

            Dinner with deputy mayor, Benjamin, in evening.

Angairao Valley

Stream/ Metrosideros

110 m

12/14/02

20:55

6 J 764194 6945222

S27.59120 W144.32358

 

Text Box: Figure 4. Map of Rurutu 15  s    (Rapa) Went to lab, then to church, back to lab afternoon. ~4pm hiked up Maungaoa to ridge. Collected there with blacklight at ~400m. Many moths. Then hiked back down, collecting along way to about 300m.

16  m   (Rapa) Sorted specimens. Collected in Maitua area in afternoon.

17  t     (Rapa) Boat (Tahiti Nui) arrived ~ 7pm. Boat left Rapa around midnight.

18  w   On boat.

19  t     (Rurutu) Boat arrived Rurutu ~ 8am. Stayed at Pension Ariana on west side. Back to town (Moerai) at noon, then collected on road running up mountain behind Moerai. Also collected at night on beach beside Pension Ariana.

20  f     Took midday flight from Rurutu to Papeete. Flight from Papeete to US left late at night.

21  s    Flight from Papeete left 1.30am. Arrived LAX 2.15pm, SFO 3.30pm.

 

Principle results

 

Raivavae

 

Collections

 

Spiders

 

Raivavae, Mt. Araua, Tuarani, 130m, 20-XI-02, coll. J-Y Meyer. Neoscona theisi.

Raivavae, Maunani, 150m, 30-XI-02, coll. J-Y Meyer, Misumenops rapaensis, 1 immatures

 

Raivavae, Taraia, 150m, 2-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie, Leucage granulata. 2 females, 1 pen male, 1 imm.

Raivavae, Taraia, 150m, 2-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie, Tangaroa tahitiensis. 5 females, 3 males, 1 imm.

 

Raivavae, Mont Matotea/ Mont Tapioi, saddle,  50m, 3-XII-02. Tangaroa tahitiensis. 1 female.

Raivavae, Mont Matotea/ Mont Tapioi, saddle,  S. side 10m, 3-XII-02. Leucauge granulata. (Palp slightly different; 1st tibia is really hairy). 3 males, 1 pen male.

Raivavae, Mont Matotea/ Mont Tapioi, saddle,  S. side 10m, 3-XII-02. Tetragnatha maxillosa, 1 male, 2 pen. Male, 2 females, 2 immature.

Raivavae, Mont Matotea/ Mont Tapioi, saddle, 50m, 3-XII-02. Like Tetragnatha ceylonica. 1 male, 2 females, 6 immatures.

Raivavae, Mt. Matotea/ Mont Tapioi saddle, south side, 10m, 3-XII-02, 1 Neoscona plebeja female.

Raivavae, Mt. Matotea/ Mont Tapioi saddle, south side, 10m, 3-XII-02, 1 Neoscona theisi female, 3 immatures.

 

Raivavae, SE side. In hibiscus, 4-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie. Leucauge granulata, 1 male, 2 females, 3 imm. Also 1 fem, 1 imm Tangaroa tahitiensis, 2 imm araneids, 1 mature male ????

Raivavae, Tahoro, Nr Anatonu, 0m, over ocean, 4-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie. Tetragnatha nitens, 2 males, 1 female, 1 imm

Raivavae, Tehoro, Nr. Anatonu, 0m, over water, 4-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie. Tetragnatha maxillosa 2 males, 1 female, 2 immatures. 1 jumping spider

 

Text Box: Figure 5. Mount Hiro, Raivavae Raivavae, Mt Hiro, 400m, native forest 5-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie. Scytodes striatipes. Imm.

Raivavae, Mt Hiro, 400m, native forest 5-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie. Tangaroa tahitiensis. 4 females, 3 males, 1 imm

Raivavae, Mt Hiro, 400m, native forest 5-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie. Dysderidae sp, pen male; clubionid?  sp. Imm.

Raivavae, Mt. Hiro, 300m, on ridge, 5-XII-02, Neoscona sp. Immature. Also Tangaroa pen. male.

Raivavae, Mt. Hiro, 380m, south side, 5-XII-02, Misumenops rapaensis, 2 males, 2 immatures

Raivavae, Mt. Hiro, 400m, native forest, 5-XII-02, Clubiona sp. (3 immatures)

Raivavae, Mt. Hiro, 400m, native forest, 5-XII-02, Neoscona theisi female

Raivavae, Mt. Hiro, 400m, native forest, 5-XII-02, Pholcus ancoralis, 1 male, 1 immature.

Raivavae, Mt. Hiro, 400m, native forest, 5-XII-02, Physocyclus globosus female + pen. Male. Also Tangaroa

Raivavae, S. side, pension Linda & nelson, 0m, 5-XII-02, Coll R Gillespie. Heteropoda sp (imm), Syctodes (fusca?), araneid female

Raivavae, South side, 2nd growth forest, 100m, 5-XII-02, coll. Benoit. Pholcus ancoralis, salticid (Pseudomaevia insulana (?) immature.

 

Weevils in Subfamily Entiminae

 

Rhyncogonus

nigerrimus

Mt.Matatea/Mt.Tapiou saddle

rgg

50m

3-xii-02

2f

 

Species Diversity

 

Spiders

 

Scytodidae

Scytodes striatipes is a widespread species known from nearly all of the Pacific. In Raivavae it was found at 400m in native forest (Mt Hiro)

Scytodes fusca is common throughout SE Asia. It was found in habitations (Pension Linda & Nelson)

 

Pholcidae

Pholcus ancoralis is known from Samoa, the Marquesas and Tahiti (Berland 1942). In Raivavae it was found low down (2nd growth forest, 100m) to near the summit of Mt. Hiro (400m).

Physocyclus globosus was found near the summit of Mt. Hiro (400m).

 

Uloboridae

Tangaroa tahitiensis was found from 50m (Mont Matotea/ Mont Tapioi, saddle) to150m (Taraia) and on the SE side in dry hibiscus forest, right up to the ridges (300m) and summit of Mt Hiro (400m).

 

Tetragnathidae

Leucauge granulata is known from the Society Islands (Berland 1942). It was found from 10m (Mont Matotea/ Mont Tapioi, saddle ) to 150m (Taraia) and on the SE side in dry hibiscus forest.

Tetragnatha maxillosa is distributed through S. Africa, SE Asia, through southern Polynesia . It was first described by Thorell (Thorell 1895). There is a good deal of confusion because Thorell (1895) first described the species based on a specimen of T. mandibulata that he had misidentified in 1890. Thorell also describes the T. mandibulata that Koch (Koch 1872) referred to as T. kochi. Berland uses the name T. mandibulata "Koch, not Walckenaer". However, in almost all cases, he appears to mean T. maxillosa. Much of Berland's material has now been examined by C. Okuma. In most cases, Berland's identifications of T. mandibulata appear to be T. maxillosa. In Raivavae T. maxillosa was found from 0m (over water of taro field; Tehoro, Nr. Anatonu) to 10m (Mont Matotea/ Mont Tapioi, saddle) where it occurred near taro fields.

Tetragnatha ceylonica was found at 50 m (Mont Matotea/ Mont Tapioi, saddle) where it was abundant along the side of the trail in the understory of 2nd growth forest.

Tetragnatha nitens is circumtropical, and occurs throughout southern Polynesia. In Raivavae it was found over the ocean (Tahoro, Nr Anatonu),where it built webs on the overhanging hibiscus.

 

Araneidae

Neoscona theisi was found from 10m (Mt. Matotea/ Mont Tapioi saddle).to 130 m (Araua, Tuarani) and to the top of Mt. Hiro. Immatures of this species (or N. plebeja) were found on the ridges of Mt Hiro (300m)

Neoscona plebeja was found at 10m (Mt. Matotea/ Mont Tapioi saddle).

 

Clubionidae

Clubiona samoensis has been described from Samoa (Berland 1929)and Tahiti (Berland 1942). On Raivavae it was found at 400m in native forest (Mt Hiro)

 

Sparassidae

Heteropoda venatoria is circumtropical in distribution. It was found in habitations (Pension Linda & Nelson)

 

Thomisidae

Misumenops rapaensis has been collected from many of the Austral islands since the 1930s. It has been reported in the past to common in Rapa and in Raivavae, Rurutu, and Tubuai. On the current expedition it was found from 150m (Maunani) up to the ridges (380m) and summit of Mt. Hiro.

 

Salticidae

 The identity of many of the salticids is not straightforward owing to the notoriously variable coloration and the similariy in genital morphology. The species found on Raivavae appears to resemble most closely Pseudomaevia insulana described by Berland (Berland 1942) from specimens from Marotiri and Tahiti. P. insulana was found in 2nd growth forest (100m)

 

 

Weevils in sufamily Entiminae

 

Rhyncogonus nigerrimus  - Mt. Matatea/Mt. Tapiou saddle.

Undet. sp.  Ð This is probably Elytrurus griseus (A species known to be widespread across Fiji and Samoa). I donÕt have any comparative material to verify this, but its does sound like the description (which actually isnÕt saying too much). Molecular work puts them basally within the monophyletic ÒRhyncogonusÓ  ingroup, but this would be one of its closest outgroups anyway so without other material I canÕt say definitively if itÕs introduced, but it seems likely, particularly given the abundance and host range....having said that nodosus and longulus from Tubuai are very abundant because they happen to like strawberry guava....so this could be a similar situation.

 

 

Delphacidae (Hemiptera)

 

Ugyops almo Fennah

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rututu, Mt Manureva, Mt. Teape

215-300m

25 viii 1934

2M, 7F

Bishop

Zimmerman

Raivavae, Mt Muanui, shrubs

150-250m

8 viii 1934

1F

Bishop

Zimmerman

Rimatara, Maraitere, Amaru.  Grasses, herbs

8m

8 viii 1934

2M, 1F

Bishop

Zimmerman

This species was collected by Zimmerman. It was not found during the current expedition. It is likely endemic to Raivavae.

 

Non-indigenous species (none collected during current expedition):

 

Delphacodes dryope (Kirkaldy)

See Fennah for complete list of localities.  Known from Raivavae, as well as Mangareva Islands, Society Islands, Queensland, and Fiji.

 

Delphacodes lazulis (Kirkaldy)

See Fennah for complete list of localities.  Known from Raivavae and Queensland

 

Delphacodes muirella (Kirkaldy)

See Fennah for complete list of localities.  Known from Rapa, Rurutu, Raivavae, Tubuai, and also Society Islands, Tuamotus, and Pitcairn.

 

 

Rapa

 

Collections

 

Spiders

 

Rapa, Maitua. In forest on way up valley, ~ 200m. 8-XII-02, Coll. R. Gillespie # 2, 8-XII-02, Tangaroa tahitiensis, 1 male, 3 females, 1 immature.

Rapa, Maitua. ~ 220m. 8-XII-02, near valley wall Coll. R. Gillespie, #6,8-XII-02 Achaearanea tepidariorum female.

Rapa, Maitua. ~ 220m. 8-XII-02, near valley wall Coll. R. Gillespie, #7,8-XII-02, Argyrodes sp. (female, kleptoparasite); 2 immature araneids.

Rapa, Maitua. In forest on way up valley, ~ 200m. 8-XII-02, Coll. R. Gillespie. Misumenops rapaensis, 4 females, 5 immatures.

 

Rapa, Maungaoa. ~ 450m. 9-XII-02, No host record. #20,9-XII-02 Coll. R. Gillespie. Neoscona plebeja 2 females; Neoscona theisi ( 1male, 2 females); 4 immatures.

Rapa, Maungaoa. ~ 450m. 9-XII-02, No host record. Coll. R. Gillespie: Misumenops rapaensis 11 ind. 8 fem., 1 male, 2 imm

Rapa, Maungaoa. ~ 450m. 9-XII-02, No host record. #24,9-XII-02. Coll. R. Gillespie. Neoscona plebeja male + female; Neoscona theisi  female plus immature. 1 Achaearanea sp.

Text Box: Figure 6. Mt. Maungaoa, Rapa Rapa, Maungaoa. ~ 450m. 9-XII-02, No host record. Coll. R. Gillespie: Misumenops rapaensis 6 ind., 3 females, 3 imm. fem

Rapa, Maungaoa. ~ 450m. 9-XII-02, No host record. #25,9-XII-02  Coll. R. Gillespie. Zenodorus microphthalmus female + 3 immature.

Rapa, Maungaoa. ~ 450m. 9-XII-02, No host record. #23,9-XII-02. Coll. R. Gillespie. Tangaroa tahitiensis 5 males, 4 females, 3 immatures

 

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, 620m, near camp, 10-XII-02. Paro simoni (this one looks more like illustration) Ð heavier. Plus Hivaoa (1 immature??) plus Paro (1 immature) + theridiids (2 immature)

Rapa, Mt. Perahu, 620 m. near camp, 10-XII-02, R. Gillespie, Misumenops rapaensis 1 female.

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, canopy fog near camp, 620m, 10-XII-02. Paro (2 types, mature males).

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, near camp, 620m, 10-XII-02, coll. R. Gillespie. Trite rapaensis 2 males, 1 female. Zenodorus microphthalmus (?) female Ð very dark.

Text Box: Figure 7. Mt. Perahu, Rapa Rapa, Perahu, 620m, canopy fog by camp, 10-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie, R. Englund, Tangaroa tahitiensis, 10 males, 8 females, 18 imm

Rapa, Perahu, 620m, Nr camp, 10-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie, Tangaroa tahitiensis, 1 pen male, 1 immature.

 

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, off summit, 600m, 11-XII-02. Achaearanea tepidariorum female.

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, off summit, 600m, 11-XII-02. Coll. R. Gillespie. Paro sp. 3 males type A, 1 of type B. Neither look like P. simoni. A. has almost smooth legs, dark, cephalothorax & abdomen well marked. B is bigger, many more leg spines, light in color.

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, off summit, 600m, 11-XII-02. Coll. R. Gillespie. Pseudomaevia insulana 1 female, 2 immatures.

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, off summit, 600m, 11-XII-02. Coll. R. Gillespie. Tangaroa tahitiensis 3 females, 3 males, 2 immatures.

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, off summit, 600m, 11-XII-02. Paro sp. (immature)

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, off summit, 600m, 11-XII-02. Theridion rapanae (male) = Coleosoma floridanum. Paro (1 pen male). Theridion (1 immature).

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, summit, 650m, 11-XII-02. Coll. R. Gillespie. Neoscona plebeja immature.

Rapa, Mt. Perahu, 600 m summit, 11-XII-02, R. Gillespie, Misumenops rapaensis 5 ind.: 3 females, 2 males.

 

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, 550m, 12-XII-02, ridge, coll. R. Gillespie. Trite sp. 2 immatures; 2 unknowns.

Rapa, Mt. Perahu, 580 m On ridge, 12-XII-02, R. Gillespie, Misumenops rapaensis 2 females

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, 580m, 12-XII-02, ridge, coll. R. Gillespie. Neoscona plebeja 2 females, 1 male.

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, 580m, 12-XII-02, ridge, coll. R. Gillespie. Tangaroa tahitiensis 3 females, 1 male, 2 immatures.

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, 580m, 12-XII-02, ridge, coll. R. Gillespie. Pseudomaevia insulana 1 female.

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, 580m, 12-XII-02. Ridge Misumenops rapaensis

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, 580m, on ridge, 12-XII-02. Paro simoni female plus Neoscona immature.

Rapa Ð Mt. Perahu, 580m, on ridge, 12-XII-02. Paro simoni female plus Hivoa (?) immature (going by color pattern).

Rapa, Mt. Perahu, on stream, ~ 30m, on Weinmannia, 12-XII-02. Achaearanea tepidariorum female.

 

Rapa, Haurei Bay, along road, ~ 5m, 13-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie, Tangaroa tahitiensis, 1 female, 1 imm

Rapa, Haurei Bay, along road, ~ 5m, 13-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie, Cheiracanthium sp (?mordax), 1 female.

Rapa, along road (Western side of Haurei Bay), 10 m 13-XII-02, coll. R. Gillespie: Misumenops rapaensis 1 female.

Rapa, along road, (Western side of Haurei Bay),5 m 13-XII-02, coll. R. Gillespie: Misumenops rapaensis 4 ind: 1 fem, 3 imm.

Rapa, coll. Benoit Olivier, 13-XII-02. Heteropoda immature, Neoscona immature.

Rapa, Haurei Bay, in taro, 13-XII02, 10m, Coll R. Gillespie, Tetragnatha nitens, 1 female, ~ 5m, 13-XII-02, Coll R Gillespie. Tetragnatha nitens. 1 male, 2 females, 6 immatures

Rapa, Mt Tonga, 27.61689/ 144.31863, 200m, 13-XII-02, Coll Olivier & Benoit. Clubiona samoensis female.

Rapa, on lab wall, 1m, 13-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie Tetragnatha nitens, 1 female

Rapa, Tumu River, ~ 5m, 13-XII-02, Coll R Gillespie. Tetragnatha nitens. 1 male, 2 females, 6 immatures

Rapa, Tumu River, ~ 5m, 13-XII-02, Coll R Gillespie. Tetragnatha nitens. 2 females, 5 immatures

 

Rapa, Pariati, Dry forest 200m, 14-XII-02, coll. R. Gillespie, Misumenops rapaensis 1 female, 1 imm .

Rapa, Periati, ~ 200m, dry forest, 14-XII-02, Coll. R. Gillespie. Scytodes (same species as on raivavae). Female.

Rapa, Pariati, 1m stream, 14-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespie, 0m, on stream below dry forest. T. nitens, 1 male, 3 females, 1 immature.

Rapa, Pariati, 200m, 14-XII-02, dry forest, coll. R. Gillespie. Neoscona plebeja female

Rapa, Anaaieo waterfall14-XII-02, Coll R. Englund. 1 male, 4 females, Tetragnatha nitens

Rapa Ð Pariati. Dry forest, 200m, 14-XII-02. Neoscona sp (? theisi), 4 immatures.

Rapa Ð Vavai 0m, 14-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespi. Tetragnatha nitens, 1male, 1 female, 4 immatures

Rapa Ð Vavai 0m, 14-XII-02, Coll R. Gillespi. Tetragnatha nitens, 2 females, 4 immatures

Rapa Ð VaVai cliff, 0m, 14-XII-02, Zenodorus microphthalmus pen. male.

Rapa, VaVai cliff, 0m, 14-XII-02. Achaearanea tepidariorum 2 females.

Rapa, VaVai cliff, 0m, 14-XII-02. Tangaroa tahitiensis 3 females, 4 males.

 

Rapa Ð Maungaoa, 350m, 15-XII-02, Neoscona theisi female (plus 1 unknown female)

Rapa, inside Pension Cerdan Faraire, 15-XII-02, Heteropoda venatoria male.

Rapa, inside Pension Cerdan Faraire, 15-XII-02, Smeringopus palidus (male and female); plus Achaearanea tepidariorum.

Rapa, Mangaoa, 350m 15-XII-02, Coll R Gillespie  5fem, 5 male, 4 imm

Rapa, Maungaoa, 350m, 15-XII-02, 1 Coleosoma floridanum, 1 immature araneid, 1 immature Misumenops.

 

 

Weevils in Subfamily Entiminae

 

     SPECIES

location

      collector

    date

           #spms

 

Rhyncogonus

albipilis

Pariati

rgg

14-xii-02

1m,1f

Rhyncogonus

albipilis

Namuere(9503)

kw

28-iii-02

4(3m,1f)

Rhyncogonus

angustus

Maungaoa

rgg

9-xii-02

4 (2m,2f)

Rhyncogonus

angustus

Maungaoa

rgg

9-xii-02

1m

Rhyncogonus

angustus

Mt. Perahu

rgg

12-XII-02

3(2f,1m)

Rhyncogonus

angustus

Akao(9440)

kw

25-iii-02

1m

Rhyncogonus

erebus

Maii(9436)

kw

25-iii-02

4(3m,3f)

Rhyncogonus

gracilis

Maii(9741)

kw

29-iv-02

1m

Rhyncogonus

gracilis

Rapa

jym

23-iii-02

2(1m,1f)

Rhyncogonus

gracilis

Anatakuri(9559)

kw

4-iv-02

3(2f,1m)

Rhyncogonus

gracilis

Peupeu(9370)

kw

21-iii-02

4(2m,2f)

Rhyncogonus

gracilis

Area(9800)

kw

10-v-02

1m

Rhyncogonus

gracilis

Eperau

jym

30-iii-02

1m

Rhyncogonus

gracilis

Mt. Mangaoa

jym

21-iii-02

2f

Rhyncogonus

gracilis

Haurei(9328)

kw

?

1m

Rhyncogonus

interstitialis

Maii(9741)

kw

29-iv-02

 

Rhyncogonus

othello

Anatakuri

jym

27-iii-02

1m

Rhyncogonus

viridescens

Mt. Perahu

rgg

12-XII-02

2(1m1f)

Rhyncogonus

viridescens

Maungaoa

rgg

9-xii-02

2(1m,1f)

Rhyncogonus

viridescens

Anatakuri(9559)

kw

4-iv-02

1f

Rhyncogonus

viridescens

Mt.pukeunis

jym

19-iii-02

5(3f,2m)

Rhyncogonus

viridescens

Maungaaiai(9796

kw

10-v-02

1f

Rhyncogonus

viridescens

Maungaoa(9537)

kw

3-iv-02

2(1m,1f)

Rhyncogonus

viridescens

Perau(9504)

kw

28-iii-02

2(1m,1f)

Asynonychus godmanni

 

 

 

 

 












 

Species Diversity

 

Spiders

 

Scytodidae

Scytodes striatipes L. Koch 1872 is a widespread species from throughout SE Asia and the Pacific (Berland 1924; Berland 1935). It has recently also been reported in Hawaiian Islands (Nishida 2001). On Rapa it was collected from ~ 200m (Periati, dry forest) and is almost certainly adventive.

 

Pholcidae

Smeringopus palidus (= S. elongatus, (Berland 1929)) is cosmopolitan. It has recently also been reported in Hawaiian Islands (Nishida 2001). In Rapa it was found inside habitations (Pension Cerdan Faraire) and is almost certainly adventive.

 

Uloboridae

Tangaroa tahitiensis (Berland 1934) occurs from sea level (collected at ~ 5m along road and on the cliffs of VaVai) through ~ 200m (in forest on way up Maitua valley), 450m (Maungaoa), to along the ridge and the summit of Mt. Perahu (580m, 600m, 620m). The extraordinarily broad ecological range of the species on Rapa, coupled with its abundance and presence also on all the other high islands of the Australs, and in the Societies, might suggest that this species is a recent arrival to the islands. However, recent molecular evidence suggests otherwise (see ÒRelationshipsÓ below).

 

Theridiidae

Achaearanea tepidariorum (C. L. Koch, 1841) is cosmopolitan. In Rapa it was found at sea level (VaVai cliff), through ~ 30m (near base of Mt. Perahu, on stream, on Weinmannia),  ~ 220 m (Maitua valley wall), to ~ 450m (Maungaoa) up to 600 m (near the summit of Mt. Perahu). It was also found inside habitations (Pension Cerdan Faraire). It is almost certainly adventive.

Argyrodes sp. (female, kleptoparasite); was found from ~ 220 m (Maitua valley wall).

Coleosoma floridanum was originally described as an endemic species Theridion rapanae (Berland 1942) but was later transferred to the pantropical species Coleosoma floridanum (Levi 1959). On Rapa it was found at 350m (Maungaoa) to 600m (Mt. Perahu, off summit). It is likely adventive.

 

Linyphiidae

Paro spp. were found only near the summit of Mt. Perahu. There seem to be several species. Paro simoni appears to be heavier than the other two (found at 580-620m). Additional species are illustrated very roughly in Figs 8 and 9. Males of type A have almost smooth legs, dark, cephalothorax & abdomen well marked. Males of type B are bigger, many more leg spines, light in color. These species are almost certainly endemic (see ÒRelationshipsÓ below).

 

Tetragnathidae

Hivaoa (1 immature??) 580m (ridge on side of Mt Perahu). Hivaoa (Tetragnathidae). Two species of the genus  Hivaoa (both female) were described from Rapa by Berland (Berland 1942). No further identified specimens have been collected since then. The specimen collected here may be an immature of Hivaoa. These specimens will be the subject of further study (see ÒRelationshipsÓ below).

Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826) is cosmotropical. It was considered indigenous to the Marquesas by Berland (Berland 1933) who points out that "the species is widespread in all the area Mediterranean (including southernmost France), almost all Africa to the Cape, Australia, New Zealand, the Chatham islands; it was however not yet known of Polynesia. Its broad distribution cannot be interpreted as an accidental transport, more especially in the case of the Marquesas it was found in the interior of two islands and not on the coast, as it is in general the case for the species fortuitously introduced." In Rapa it was found from sea level (0m on cliff face at VaVai; 1m on stream at Pariati; 2m on lab wall in Haurei; 5m, Haurei Bay, in taro; ~ 5m on Tumu River; and ~ 10m on Angairao waterfall). It is most likely adventive.

 

Araneidae

Neoscona plebeja has been documented from Fiji, Tonga, Funafuti, and Rapa. It was originally described as Epeira plebeja L. Koch, 1871. It was transferred to Araneus plebejus by Berland (Berland 1935), and to Neoscona plebeja by Ledoux and HallŽ (Ledoux 1995). On Rapa it was found at 200m (Pariati, dry forest); ~ 450m (Maungaoa) through 580m (Mt Perahu ridge) to 650m (Mt. Perahu, summit). It is likely adventive.

Neoscona theisi (Walckenaer, 1842) has been documented from India, China to the Pacific Islands. It has recently also been reported in the Hawaiian Islands (Nishida 2001). In Rapa it was found at 350- 450m (Maungaoa). It is almost certainly adventive.

 

Clubionidae

Clubiona samoensis Berland (Berland 1929)has been documented from Samoa, Tahiti and Rapa (Berland 1942). On the current expedition it was collected from 200m (Mt Tonga,  27.61689/ 144.31863). It may be an indigenous species.

 

Miturgidae

Cheiracanthium mordax The genus Cheiracanthium was transferred to the Miturgidae from the Clubionidae by Ram’rez, Bonaldo & Brescovit (Ram’rez, Bonaldo et al. 1997). C. mordax is well known from Australia (where it is native) (Main 1964; Dondale 1966) through the Pacific (Marples 1959) to Hawaii (where it is an alien pest) (Nishida 2002). It was found along the road north of Huarei in Rapa and is almost certainly adventive.

 

Sparassidae

Heteropoda venatoria is pantropical and throughout the Hawaiian Islands (Nishida 2002). In Rapa was collected from habitations in Haurei (Pension Cerdan Faraire)

 

Thomisidae

Misumenops rapaensis Berland (Berland 1934) is known from Rapa, Raivavae, and Tubuai (Berland 1942). In the current expedition it was found from ~ 200 m (in forest on way up Maitua valley) through 350m (Maungaoa,),  to 580m (ridge towards summit of Mt. Perahu). The very broad range of the species on Rapa, together with its abundance and presence also on all the other high islands of the Australs, and in the Societies, might lead one to suggest that the species is a recent arrival to the islands. However, recent (very preliminary) molecular evidence suggests otherwise (see ÒRelationshipsÓ below).

 

Salticidae

Zenodorus microphthalmus was originally described as Jotus microphthalmus L. Koch, 1881. It was transferred to Mollika microphthalma by Peckham & Peckham (Peckham and Peckham 1901) and to Zenodorus microphthalmus by Berry, Beatty & Pr—szyn'ski (Berry, Beatty et al. 1996). The species is known from throughout the Pacific Islands, including Rapa (Ledoux 1995) and Hawaii (Nishida 2001; Nishida 2002). On the current expedition it was found from sea level (VaVai cliff) to ~ 450m (Maungaoa) to 620m (near the summit of Mt. Perahu).

Thorelliola  ensifera (=Thorellia  ensifera) was originally described as Plexippus ensifer Thorell. The species is known from throughout the Pacific Islands (Berry, Beatty et al. 1996), including Rapa (Ledoux 1995) and Hawaii (Nishida 2002).  On the current expedition it was found only on the ridge (580m) and near the summit of Mt. Perahu (600m).

Trite rapaensis Berland (Berland 1942) appears to be confined to Rapa (Ledoux 1995; Berry, Beatty et al. 1997). On the current expedition it was found only near the summit of Mt. Perahu (550-620m). It appears to be endemic.

 

 

Weevils in subfamily Entiminae

 

Rhyncogonus albipilis was collected from Pariati, Namuere, Anarua, Maii, Peupeu

R. angustus was collected from Anarua, Maungaaia, Anatakuri,  Akao

R. erebus was collected from Maii

R. gracilis was collected from Maii, Karapo, Namuere, Mangaaiai, above Haurei, Perau, Pukunia, Area, Peupeu, Anatakuri, Mt. Mangaroa,

R. interstitialis was collected from Maii

R. othello was collected from Mt. Perahu

R. viridescens was collected from Maungaaiai, Pukunuia, Perau, Anatakuri, Karapo, Maungaoa, Matarei,

 

R. viridescens, R. albipilis and R. gracilis are abundant and R. angustus is not uncommon. They are collected and in the same areas. The other species are at lower densities.

The following are species collected by G. Paulay in 1987 and E. Zimmerman in the 1930s, but not collected during recent expeditions, including the current expedition:

 

R. dispersus

R. pleuralis

R. pubipennis

R. regularis

R. tarakoi Ð almost certainly extinct, Paulay collected these from Tarakoi i islet.

 

Introduced species

Asynonychus godmanii (Pantomorus cervinus) Fullers Rose Weevil, this weevil is a pest of citrus in California, the species is highly polyphagous. It occurs only on Tahiti and Rapa (Tamanu river) in French Polynesia (as far as I know), but is also found in Hawaii in Polynesia. Its home range is c/s America, but it occurs across Europe these days. ItÕs thought to be parthogenetic, which is probably how it has colonized such a widespread range.

 

 

Text Box: Table 1. Checklist of Delphacidae in the Austral Is. And Rapa.  Information from Fennah (1958), with insects collected as part of this report marked as X.  Note: some of the undetermined species may turn out to be non-indigenous species, rather than new endemic species.					



Species	Rimatara	Rurutu	Tubuai	Raivavae	Rapa
Endemic species					
Nesosydne soracte Fennah					X
N. sophonisba Fennah					X
N. satyrion Fennah					X
N. panthus Fennah					X
N. otus Fennah					X
N. ozomene Fennah					X
Ugyops almo Fennah 	X	X		X	
Undet. species 1					X
Undet. species 2					X
Undet. species 3					X
Undet. species 4					X
					
Non-indigenous species					
Chloriona eupompe Kirk.		X			X
C. paludum Kirk.	X				
Delphacodes dryope Kirk.				X	
D. lazulis Kirk.				X	
D. muirella Metcalf		X	X	X	X Delphacidae (Hemiptera)

 

The major reference for this group was published by Fennah (Fennah 1958) with additional comments by Asche (Asche 1997) (1997), noting that there are few morphological similarities that link the species described as in the same genera found both in French Polynesia and the Hawaiian Islands.  The standard reference for this group for Hawaii is by Zimmerman (Zimmerman 1948).  Lists are included below for the Austral Islands and Rapa, including the areas in which this collection occurred.  Manfred Asche may have more information on these species as well.

                               

           Other references for the Delphacidae in the Pacific include (Swezey 1954; Howarth and Mull 1992; Roderick 1997; Roderick and Gillespie 1998; Nishida 2002). 

           The collections on this trip also included other Fulgoroidea, roaches, crickets, beetles, and flies

 

Delphacidae of the Austral Islands and RapaÑdetailed collection notes.

 

Indigenous species (all endemic)

 

Nesosydne soracte Fennah

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rapa: Mt Perahu, north-east ridge

370-430m

115 vii 1934

1M

Bishop

Zimmerman

 

Notes:

Brachypterous. Fennah's description: M  3.0 mm, tegmen 3.0

Species distinguished by shape of head, coloration , and structure of male genitalia.

 

Nesosydne sophonisba Fennah

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rapa: widespread

30-430 m

9-25 vii 1934

10M, 41F

Bishop

Zimmerman

 

Notes:

Brachypterous. Fennah's description: M  3.0, tegmen 2.7, F 3.1, tegmen 3.0.

Species distinguished by proportions of head, coloration , and structure of male genitalia.

 

Nesosydne satyrion Fennah

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rapa: widespread

200-430 m

4-21 vii 1934

15F, 22F

Bishop

Zimmerman

 

Notes:

Brachypterous. Fennah's description: M  2.8, tegmen 2.8, F 3.6, tegmen 3.0.

Species distinguished by the proportions of the frons, by the shape of the male genitalia, especially of the aedeagus, and coloration.

 

Nesosydne panthus Fennah

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rapa: Karapo Rahi Islet

30-100m

18 vii 1934

1M

Bishop

Zimmerman

Rapa: Mrongota

200-250m

11 vii 1934

1M

Bishop

Zimmerman

Rapa: Mt Perahu, ridge, on Metrosideros

590m

12 xi 2002

1M, 1F, 3i

Essig

Gillespie

Rapa: Mt Perahu

650m

11 xi 2002

1M

Essig

Gillespie

Rapa: Mt Perahu, ridge, on Metrosideros

650m

11 xi 2002

1M, 1F, 2i

Essig

Gillespie

 

Notes:

Brachypterous. Fennah's description: M  3.3.

Species distinguished by the proportions of the frons, by the structure of the male genitalia, especially of the aedeagus, and coloration.  Very close to N. otus.

 

Nesosydne otus Fennah

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rapa: Karapo Rahi Islet, Mangaoa, Mt. Perahu, Mt. Tevaitahu, M. Orogangi.  On Veronica, ferms

30-460m

3-21 vii 1934

18M, 8F

Bishop

Zimmerman

 

Notes:

Brachypterous. Fennah's description: M  2.2 mm, tegmen 2.1mm, F 4.0mm, 3.5mm.

Species distinguished by the proportions of the frons and shape of the aedeagus, and coloration. 

 

Nesosydne ozomene Fennah

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rapa: Maitua

215-250m

2 vii 1934

16M

Bishop

Zimmerman

 

Notes:

Brachypterous. Fennah's description: M  2.3 mm, tegmen 2.0mm.

Species distinguished by the proportions of the head, coloration, and shape of the male genitalia

 

Ugyops almo Fennah

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rututu, Mt Manureva, Mt. Teape

215-300m

25 viii 1934

2M, 7F

Bishop

Zimmerman

Raivavae, Mt Muanui, shrubs

150-250m

8 viii 1934

1F

Bishop

Zimmerman

Rimatara, Maraitere, Amaru.  Grasses, herbs

8m

8 viii 1934

2M, 1F

Bishop

Zimmerman

 

Notes:

Brachypterous. Fennah's description: M  5.9 mm, F 6.9 mm.

Species distinguished by the proportions of the head, antennae, shapte of male genitalia.

 

 

 

 

Undet. species 1

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rapa: Perahu, on Haroldia

600 m

11 xii 02

1M, 1F

Essig

Gillespie

 

Undet. species 2

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rapa: Perahu, on Freycenetia

580-620 m

10-12 xii 02

20M, 9F, 9i

Essig

Gillespie

 

Undet. species 3

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rapa: Perahu, on Corokia

450-630 m

9-12 xii 02

11M, 12F, 5i

Essig

Gillespie

 

Undet. species 4

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rapa: Perahu, on Hebe

630 m

11 xii 02

3M, 5F, 1i

Essig

Gillespie

 

 

Non-indigenous species:

 

Chloriona eupompe (Kirkaldy)

See Fennah for complete list of localities.  Known from Rapa, Rurutu, as well as Society Islands.

 

Chloriona paludum (Kirkaldy)

See Fennah for complete list of localities.  Known from Rimatara, as well as Cook Islands and Mangareva Islands.

 

Delphacodes dryope (Kirkaldy)

See Fennah for complete list of localities.  Known from Raivavae, as well as Mangareva Islands, Society Islands, Queensland, and Fiji.

 

Delphacodes lazulis (Kirkaldy)

See Fennah for complete list of localities.  Known from Raivavae and Queensland

 

Delphacodes muirella (Kirkaldy)

See Fennah for complete list of localities.  Known from Rapa, Rurutu, Raivavae, Tubuai, and also Society Islands, Tuamotus, and Pitcairn.

 

 

Flies - Tephritidae (Diptera)

 

Only three endemic species of Tephritidae have been described from French Polynesia, Bactrocera (Dacus) perfuscus Aubertin, Trupanea (Trypanea) simplex (Malloch 1932) and Paroxyna sororcula Wiedemann (Malloch 1935).  We found previously sat least 2 new Trupanea species, one on Tahiti and one on Moorea, both from high elevations (above 750m).  Other non-indigenous Bactrocera are pests both in the Society Islands and on Tahuata.

 

Collections are described below for tephritid species on Rapa as a result of this trip.  There are at least 2 species, and maybe 3.  The first two are very similar and may prove to be the same species despite differences in size.  Both are found on Rapa.  The third species was found on Raivavae at low elevation near Taro

 

References for Tephritidae of this region include (Hardy and Delfinado 1980; Evenhuis 1989; White and Elson-Harris 1992; Hancock and Drew 1994; Hardy and Drew 1996){Drew, 1994 #119;Drew, 1998 #121;Drew, 2000 #120.

 

Possible Genus Trupanea

 

Trupanea undet. Rapa 1

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rapa: Perahu Ridge

500m

12 xii 02

2M, 2F

Essig

Gillespie

Rapa: Maungaoa, on Oparanthus flowers

450m

9 xii 02

1M, 7F

Essig

Gillespie

Rapa: Maungaoa, on Corokia

450m

9 xii 02

2M, 1F

Essig

Gillespie

Rapa: Maungaoa, on Corokia

450m

9 xii 02

2M, 2F

Essig

Gillespie

Rapa: Maungaoa, on Metrosideros

590-650m

11-12 xii 02

3M, 3F

Essig

Gillespie

 

Notes:

A larger and darker species? than below.  Associated with native plants.

 

Trupanea undet. Rapa 2

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Rapa: Pariati, dry forest Ridge

200m

14 xii 02

2F

Essig

Gillespie

Rapa: Maungaoa, on Corokia

450m

9 xii 02

1M

Essig

Gillespie

Rapa: Harrei, by house

20m

17 xii 02

5M, 12F

Essig

Gillespie

 

Notes:

A lighter and smaller species? than above.  Although one was found on Corokia, these were found in drier areas.

 

Genus? undet. Raivavae 1

 

Location

Elevation

Date

# specimens

Museum

Collector

Raivavae: Tahoro, Nr. Anatonu.  On Taro?

5m

4 xii 02

3M, 5F

Essig

Gillespie

 

Notes:

Wings with 2 distinct bands, unlike the spotted pattern of above 2 species.

Rurutu

 

Collections

 

Spiders

 

Rurutu ÐMoerai. 19-XII-02, On river, ~ 30m, Coll R. Gillespie. Tetragnatha maxillosa, 1 male, 3 females, 1 immature. PLUS 1 male, 2 females.

Rurutu ÐMoerai. 19-XII-02, On river, ~ 5m, Coll R. Gillespie. Tetragnatha ceylonica, 3 males, 3 females, 5 immatures. Also, T. maxillosa, 1 male.

Rurutu ÐMoerai. 19-XII-02, Pension Ariana, on beach at night, Coll R. Gillespie. Tetragnatha ceylonica, 6 males, 4 females, 1 immature.

Rurutu Ð Above Moerai. 19-XII-02, 400ft, Coll R. Gillespie. Leucage granulata female

Rurutu, above Moerai, 19-XII-02, 400ft, Coleosoma floridanum, 2 females, 1 immature araneid.

Rurutu, above Moerai, 19-XII-02, 400ft, Misumenops rapaensis, 1 immature.

Rurutu, above Moerai, 19-XII-02, 400ft, Pholcus ancoralis, 1 male, 3 females, 2 immatures

Rurutu, above Moerai, 19-XII-02, 400ft, Tangaroa tahitiensis, 1 female, 5 immatures.

Rurutu, above Moerai, 19-XII-02, 400ft, Plexippus paykulli, 1 female, 1 immature.

Rurutu, above Moerai, 19-XII-02, 400ft, Cheiracanthium sp. (mordax?), 1 female.

Rurutu, on cliffs near Moerai, 19-XII-02, 10m, coll. Benoit, Pholcus ancoralis, 1 immature.

 

Species Diversity

 

Pholcidae

Pholcus ancoralis is cosmopolitan. In Rurutu it was found on cliffs near sea level.

 

Uloboridae

Tangaroa tahitiensis is common throughout area (see ÒRelationshipsÓ below).

 

Tetragnathidae (see discussions for Raivavae above). All of these species, with the possible exception of Leucauge granulata, are likely to be adventive in Rurutu

Tetragnatha maxillosa

Tetragnatha ceylonica

Tetragnatha nitens

Leucauge granulata

 

Therididiidae

Coleosoma floridanum (see discussion above). Likely adventive in Rurutu.

 

Miturgidae

Cheiracanthium mordax is well known from Australia (where it is native) through to Hawaii (where it is an alien pest) (see above).

 

Thomisidae

Misumenops rapaensis is common throughout area (see ÒRelationshipsÓ below).

 

Salticidae

Plexippus paykulli (Audouin 1826) is cosmopolitan, occurring almost everywhere, including Hawaii {Nishida, 2002 #108} and French Polynesia (Berland 1945; Ledoux 1995). It is almost certainly adventive in Rurutu.

 

 

 

References

 

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