Chapter 7


Chen, Q., and others, 1989. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. Higher Education Press, Beijing, China, (In Chinese).

Gong P. and P.J. Howarth, 1990a. Land cover to land use conversion: a knowledge-based approach, Technical Papers, Annual Conference of American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Denver, Colorado, Vol. 4, pp.447-456.

_____, 1990b. An assessment of some factors influencing multispectral land-cover classification, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 56(5):597-603.

_____, 1990c. Impreciseness in land-cover classification: its determination, representation and application. The International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS '90, pp. 929-932.

_____, 1992a. Frequency-based contextual classification and grey-level vector reduction for land-use identification. Photogrametric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 58(4):421-437.

_____, 1992b. Land-use classification of SPOT HRV data using a cover-frequency method. International Journal of Remote Sensing, .

_____, 1993. An assessment of some small window-based spatial features for use in land-cover classification, IGARSS'93, Tokyo, August 18-22, 1993.

Gonzalez, R. C., and P. Wintz, 1987. Digital Image Processing, 2nd. Ed., Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Mass.

Haralick, R. M., 1979. Statistical and structural approaches to texture. Proceedings of the IEEE, 67(5):786-804.

Haralick, R. M., Shanmugan, K. and Dinstein, I., 1973. Texture features for image classification. IEEE Transactions on System, Man and Cybernetics, SMC-3(6):610-621.

Hsu, S., 1978. Texture-tone analysis for automated landuse mapping. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 44(11):1393-1404.

Jensen, J.R., 1983. Urban/Suburban Land Use Analysis. In R.N. Colwell (editor-in-chief), Manual of Remote Sensing, Second Edition, American Society of Photogrammetry, Falls Church, USA, pp. 1571-1666.

Lillesand, T. M., and R. W. Kiefer, 1994. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Peddle, D., 1991. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Department of Geography, The University of Calgary.

Richards, J. A., 1986. Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis: An Introduction. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Rosenfield, G. H., and K. Fitzpatrick-Lins, 1986. A coefficient of agreement as a measure of thematic classification accuracy. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 52(2):223-227.

Story, M. and R. G. Congalton, 1986. Accuracy assessment, a user's perspective. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 52(3):397-399.

Swain, P. H., and S. M. Davis (editors.), 1978. Remote Sensing: The Quantitative Approach. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Yen, J., 1989. Gertis: a Dempster-Shafer approach to diagosing hierarchical hypotheses. Communications of the ACM. 32(5):573-585.

Further Readings

Ball, G. H., and J. D. Hall, 1967. A clustering technique for summarizing multivariate data. Behavioral Science, 12:153-155.

Bezdek, J.C., R. Ehrlich & W. Fall, 1984, FCM: the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm, Computers and Geoscience, 10:191-203.

Bishop, Y. M. M., S. E. Feinberg, and P. W. Holland, 1975. Discrete Multivariate Analysis - Theory and Practice. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Chittineni, C. B., 1981. Utilization of spectral-spatial information in the classification of imagery data. Computer Graphics and Image Processing, 16:305-340.

Cibula, W. G., M. O. Nyquist, 1987, Use of topographic and climatological models in geographical data base to improve Landsat MSS classification for Olympic national park. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 53(1):67-76.

Cohen, J., 1960. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 37-46.

Congalton, R. G., and R. A. Mead, 1983. A quantitative method to test for consistency and correctness in photointerpretation. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 49(1):69-74.

Conners, R. W., and C. A. Harlow, 1980. A theoretical comparison of texture algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, PAMI-2(3): 204-222.

Fleiss, J. L., J. Cohen, and B. S. Everitt, 1969. Large sample standard errors of Kappa and weighted Kappa. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 72, No. 5, pp. 323-327.

Fu, K. S and Yu, T. S., 1980. Spatial Pattern Classification Using Contextual Information, Research Studies Press, Chichester, England.

Fung, T., and E. F. LeDrew, 1987. Land cover change detection with Thematic Mapper spectral/textural data at the rural-urban fringe. Proceedings of 21st Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Ann Arbor, Mi., Vol. 2, pp.783-789.

_____, 1988. The determination of optimal threshold levels for change detection using various accuracy indices. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 54(10):1449-1454.

Gong, P., D. Marceau, and P. J. Howarth, 1992. A comparison of spatial feature extraction algorithms for land-use mapping with SPOT HRV data. Remote Sensing of Environment. 40:137-151.

Gong, P., J. R. Miller, J. Freemantle, and B. Chen, 1991. Spectral decomposition of Landsat TM data for urban land-cover mapping, 14th Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, pp.458-461.

Ketting, R. J., and Landgrebe, D. A., 1976. Classification of multispectral image data by extraction and classification of homogeneous objects. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Electronics, GE-14(1):19-26.

Landgrebe, D. A. and E. Malaret, 1986. Noise in remote sensing systems: the effects on classification error. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, GE-24(2):