Insect vectors of Xylella fastidiosa belong to three groups within the Order Hemiptera, Suborder Auchenorrhyncha. The most important vectors in the Americas are in the family Cicadellidae, subfamily Cicadellinae; these insects are also known as sharpshooter leafhoppers. Another group that is very poorly studied are cicadas (family Cicadidae). Finally, spittlebugs are insects in the superfamily Cercopoidea, which has five families. Three of these families, Aphrophoridae, Cercopidae, and Clastopteridae, have insect vectors of X. fastidiosa.
The list of demonstrated X. fastidiosa vectors continues to increase, but that is expected because species within the groups mentioned above should be considered potential vectors unless proven otherwise. To learn more about X. fastidiosa transmission click here
Important vectors in California
- Graphocephala atropunctata (blue-green sharpshooter)
- Homalodisca vitripennis (glassy-winged sharpshooter)
- Xyphon fulgida (red-headed sharpshooter)
- Draeculacephala minerva (green sharpshooter)